Nieuport XVII.[Wo1-Fr.]

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Nieuport XVII.[Wo1-Fr.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 06 jun 2008, 18:22

Geallieerde verkenner/jager uit het begin van de Eerste Wereldoorlog.
De geboorte van de verkenningsvliegtuigen van de Nieuport familie gaat terug op de maanden voor de oorlog.De Franse marine-ingenieur Gustave Delage begon toen met het ontwikkelen van verschillende waarnemingsvliegtuigen.Dat resulteerde in de Nieuport X,die in 1915 in dienst kwam,en de types XI en XII.
Strikt genomen waren deze verkenners anderhalfdekkers en ze waren niet sterk genoeg van constructie.Maar in de Nieuport XVII was de torsiestijfheid van de enkel ligger van de smalle ondervleugel verbeterd,en dankzij de extra kracht van de 84kW (113pk) Le Rhône motor ontstond een heel nieuw toestel.Dat dankte zijn prestaties aan de goede lift van de bovenvleugel en de nauwelijks aanwezige weerstand van de ondervleugel.
De Nieuport XVII kwam op 2 mei 1916 in dienst bij Escadrille N57,vrijwel op hetzelfde moment als de roemruchte DH2 bij het Britse RFC zijn intrede deed.Volgens sommige bronnen zouden eerdere versies van de Nieuport kort daarvoor al in dienst zijn geweest bij Franse en Britse eenheden.De komst van nieuwe en betere vliegtuigen was dringend nodig,gezien de toenemende verwoesting die de 'Fokker-gesel' onder Geallieerde vliegtuigen aanrichtte.
In een Nieuport XVII werd Albert Ball van No. 11 Squadron van de RFC binnen korte tijd een nationale held.Hij schoot tussen augustus 1916 en mei 1917 maar liefst 44 vijandelijke toestellen neer en deed daarmee meer dan wie dan ook om het afnemende Britse vertrouwen in het eigen vliegkorps te herstellen.Na Balls mysterieuze dood op 7 mei 1917 (overigens in een R.E.5) maakte ook een andere Britse piloot,kapitein William Bishop naam als 'ace' met zijn Nieuport XVII.Aan Franse zijde was het Georges Guynemer die met Escadrille N3 grote bekwaamheid toonde,en de Fokker eendekkers met gesynchroniseerd geschut het hoofd bood met vergelijkbare Franse vindingen.Onder de Franse piloten die met de Nieuport goede resultaten boekten waren Charles Nungesser,Maurie Boyau,Armand Pinsard,René Dorme,Gabriël Guerin,Albert Deullin en Jean Navarre.

Italië en België.
Nieuports werden op grote schaal gebruikt bij Belgische Squadrons.André de Meulemeester,Edmond Thieffry,Jan Olieslagers en Francis Jaquet boekten overwinningen met Escadrille 1 en 5.
In licentie door Macchi gebouwde Nieuport XVII vlogen in 1916-'17 in Italiaanse dienst.De bekende piloten Baracca,Piccio en Scaroni openden hun staat van dienst met dit vliegtuig.Na medio 1917 werd de Nieuport overklast door moderne vlegtuigen.Maar dit type werd nog ingezet door anti-Bolsjewistische troepen in Noord-Rusland in 1918,en diende als trainingstoestel voor de Amerikaanse expeditiemacht in Frankrijk in dat jaar.

Specificatie.
Type:Eenpersoons gevechts/verkenningsvliegtuig.
Voortstuwing:Een luchtgekoelde negencilinder Le Rhône rotatiemotor van 84kW (113pk).
Prestaties:Maximumsnelheid 172 km/u op 2000m;Klim naar 3000m in 9 minuten;Plafond 5300m;Vliegduur:2 uur.
Gewicht:Leeg:357 kg;Maximum startgewicht 560 kg.
Afmetingen:Spanwijdte:8,2 m;Lengte:5,75 m;Hoogte:2,33 m;Vleugeloppervlak:14,77 m².
Bewapening:Een vaste 7,7-mm Vickers mitrailleur op de neus,gesynchroniseerd om tussen de propellerbladen door te schieten (vaak vervangen door een of twee 7,7-mm Lewis mitrailleurs op de bovenvleugel die over de propeller heen schoten).

Afbeelding

Afbeelding
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Nieuport XVII.[Wo1-Fr.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 12 dec 2010, 14:47

The French Nieuport series of fighting scouts became widdely popular with their pilots during the ferocious air battles of 1916-1918. Ironically, the two Nieuport Brothers who founded their family's aircraft company were both killed in seperate air crashes prior to World War One; thought the company was able to stay afloat and would later flourish on the back of wartime production orders.
Its first major succes was the Nieuport XI, nicknamed the Bébé (Baby) because it was developed from a racing aircraft of the same name. It earned its place in history for being one of the aircraft types which defeated the so called 'Fokker Scourge' that had inflicted such a bloody and no-doubt psychological toll on the Allied air arms from mid 1915 to early 1916.
Rather than being a straightforward biplane design the Nieuports were in fact sesquiplanes - with essentially one and a half wings - were the lower wings is only half the size of that above it.
Inevitably, the incredible rate at which aircraft were developed in those days, driven forward by the demands of war, meant that the Nieuport XI was itself becoming vulnerable by the spring of 1916. To keep pace with the unfolding technology race, the Frenchmanufacturer's design team produced an improved model, the Nieuport XVII. It entered service with the French Aéronautique Militaire in march 1916 and would go on to equip every French fighter squadron before the end of the year. It was a timely arrival, as the introduction of the new generation of Albatros scouts soon provided a boost to the Germans.
The Nieuport family of fighters was also favoured by the British. When the XVII was introduced, it was widely believed to be a better fighting machine than any type currently in service, leading to an order for both the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Navy Air Service (RNAS).
No.1 Squadron RFC took delivery of its first Nieuport XVII's in january of 1917 and in just four months ran up 200 aerial victories, so it's no surprise that the type earned respect from the Germans too. Captured examples were supplied to some of their own aircraft manufacturers and the Siemens-Schuckert D series of fighters are largely copies of the Nieuport XI and XVII. Another example of how the type was thought to have influenced the top German designers comes from the Albatros stable, whose D.III was also a sesquiplane design.
The initial armament for the Nieuport XVII was a single 0.303 Lewis machine gun fitted above the upper wing. For pilots flying any aircraft with a gun mounted on top of the wing, changing the ammunition drum was usually a tricky process. However, those flying the Nieuport XVII had the advantage of a curved metal mount, which allowed its pilots to pull the gun from the wing to chest height in order to clear blockages or change the entire ammunition drum. The upward pointing angle this produced also enabled pilots to attack enemy machines from below.
During the second half of 1916 a new improved model, the XVII bis, was being introduced. The original 110hp Le Rhone engine was replaced by a 130hp Clerget model and a series of wooden fairings were fitted along the entire length of the fuselage, making its appearance noticeably different from earlier production models. In addition to the wing-mounted Lewis gun, the XVII bis was intended to be fitted with extra firepower in the form of single 0.303in Vickers machine gun, which was located inside the engine cowling and synchronised to fire the propeller. However, experiments carried out in aircraft that had both guns fitted highlighted significant performance degradation and only a few examples carried both guns into battle.
This great French ace Charles Nungesser tested the bis model and was reported to have been pleased with its performance and handling. He flew the type operationally on at least one occasion, but subsequently decided that he preferred the Spad scouts. This preference is often put forward as the reason that the XVII bis model failed to achieve large-scale production. At least one XVII is known to have been fitted with four machine guns, the combined weight of which made the type's performance unacceptable for combat.
During the early months of 1917, the XVII and XVII bis began to lose their edge as fighting scouts. The German Fokker Dr.1 was beginning to enter service, pushing the balance of air power back into the German's favour. The French began to relegate their Nieuport XVII's and bis examples to the training role, replacing them in the front line with the next generation of Mark XXIV, XXVIII and Spad scouts being introduced.
It was around this time that Nieuport began to experiment with triplane designs. The first of these had the redesigned wing layout attached to a Mark XVII fuselage. Its appearance was significantly different to the existing Sopwith and Fokker triplanes because the Nieuport had its top wing further back than the two below it - exactly the opposite layout to those used on the British and Dutch designed aircraft that had the top wing furthest forward. Unfortunately, despite working on several different wing layouts, trials proved unsatisfactory and only a handful of triplanes were built. The manufacturer's focus returned to the sesquiplane designs that had brought it considerable fame and succes, resulting in an extended Nieuport family, which continued to evolve for the duration of World War One, though the succession of models were largely overshadowed by their Spad competitors.
The RFC was the last to use the XVII in combat, flying it over France and Macedonia, before replacing it with types like the Sopwith Camel and SE5.
The Nieuport XVII also served with the air forces of Belgium, Finland, Imperial Russia, Italy (licensed-built by Macchi), The Nederlands and Switzerland. The United States also purchased a large number of two-seaters, which it used extensively for training purposes. Some of these were later acquired by the Swiss; at least one of them 'gifted' when a US machine force landed in Switzerland with engine problems.
A number of Allied Aces scored at least some of theis victories in the Nieuport XVII. The most famous were Englishman Albert Ball VC, Canadian Willian 'Billy' Bishop VC, and the outstanding Frenchman Rene Fonck, Georges Guynemer and Charles Nungesser.
Indeed, 'Billy' Bishop was awarded the Victoria Cross after a single-handed attack on a German airfield in a 60 Squadron Nieuport XVII on june 17, 1917.

Met dank aan Marco Annunziata, Marineo Sicily.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Nieuport XVII.[Wo1-Fr.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 19 dec 2011, 21:44

De Nieuport 17 in detail:



NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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