Hawker Typhoon.[Wo2-GB.]

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Hawker Typhoon.[Wo2-GB.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 06 jun 2008, 19:07

Tactisch grondaanvalsvliegtuig.
In antwoord op specificatie F.18/37 van het Air Ministry begon Hawkers Sydney Camm in 1937 aan het ontwerp van de Typhoon.De specificatie bedong dat de motor een Rolls-Royce Vulture X-Type of een Napier Sabre H-Type moest zijn,dus werden er in eerste instantie twee prototypes gebouwd.Het prototype met de Vulture motor stond bekend als de Tornado.
Beide typen hadden problemen met de motor,maar de problemen van het model met de Sabre motor,aangeduid als Typhoon,werden opgelost omdat de firma Napier meer tijd en energie kon besteden aan de ontwikkeling.Rolls-Royce had al te veel te stellen met de Merlin om voldoende middelen in te zetten voor het verbeteren van de tegenvallende Vulture motor.
Nadat het Typhoon prototype op 24 februari 1940 zijn eerste vlucht had gemaakt,bleek het cascoproblemen te vertonen.Die waren nog niet verholpen toen het toestel in dienst werd genomen.Het oorspronkelijke prototype had vleugels met twaalf machinegeweren,en toen het in productie genomen werd,kreeg dit type de aanduiding Typhoon Mk 1A.
Alle productie-Typhoons,in totaal zo'n 3300 stuks,werden door Gloster gebouwd.Een tweede prototype,dat op 3 juli 1941 zijn eerste vlucht maakte,had vleugels met vier 20-mm Hispano kanonnen,en kreeg in productie de aanduiding Typhoon Mk 1B.

Squadron Typhoons.
De eerste productietoestellen werden n september 1941 aan de RAF geleverd,in eerste instantie aan No.56 Squadron.In dienst werd al snel duidelijk dat de cascoproblemen niet verholpen waren.
Verschillende piloten verloren het leven,en het Air Ministry overwoog het type uit dienst te nemen.Gelukkig ontdekte Hawker waarom beangstigend veel toestellen hun volledige staartsectie verloren,maar het duurde tot eind 1942 voor alle motor- en cascoproblemen verholpen waren.Ook toen nog had de Typhoon een matige klimsnelheid,maar anderzijds had het toestel een hoge topsnelheid op lage hoogte,die in november 1941 voor het eerst uitgebuit werd.No.609 Squadron,destijds gestationeerd in Manston,Kent,vernietigde vier Fw 190's in hit-and-run aanvallen.
Tegen eind 1942 was de Typhoon een uitstekende Jachtbommenwerper geworden,voortgestuwd door de verbeterd Napier Sabre IIA motor,bewapend met vier 20-mm Hispano kanonnen,en met een bommenlading van 113- of 227-kg bommen onder de vleugels.Typhoon Squadrons bestreken Frankrijk en de Lage Landen en conentreerden zich op het verstoren van de Duitse communicatielijnen,maar pas eind 1943 werd het potentieel van de Typhoons Mk 1B ten volle gerealiseerd door hem uit te rusten met raketten met een lading van 27 kg.In deze vorm was de Typhoon effectief tegen Duitse kustvaart en tanks,en de bijna constante aanvallen bij dag en nacht op de Duitse communicatie droegen in hoge mate bij aan het geallieerde succes op D-day.De Typhoons bouwden een reputatie op alstreinkillers en als korteafstand luchtsteuntoestellen.Vanaf eind 1943 werden ze ook ingezet voor de cruciale 'Noball' aanvalen op veronderstelde V-1 lanceerplaatsen,die bijzonder seriues genomen werden.

Meer vermogen.
In de laatste stadia van de oorlog veranderde er weinig aan de Typhoon,alleen werden er iets krachtigere Sabre IIB en IIC motoren aangebracht.Enige andere varianten waren een enkele Typhoon NF.Mk IB Nachtjager en een klein aantal Typhoon FR.Mk IIB tactische verkenningsvliegtuigen.Sommige productietoestellen werden toegewezen aan eenheden van de Royal Canadian Air orce en de Royal New Zealand Air Force die in Europa opereerden.Hoewel hij in het begin zo onbetrouwbaar was dt hij bijna uit dienst was genomen,werd hij op zijn toppunt door niet minder dan 26 Squadrons van de 2nd Tactical Air Force gebruikt.Na de wapenstilstand in Europa bleven er weinig toestellen in dienst.

Specificaties.
Hawker Typhoon Mk 1B.
Type:eenzits jachtbommenwerper
Voortstuwing:een Napier Sabre IIA H-type zuigermotor van 1626 KW(2180 pk)
Prestaties: Topsnelheid:663 km/u op 5790m ; Kruissnelheid:531 km/u op 4570m , Klimsnelheid:Tot 4570m in 5'50".
Plafond:10.730
Bereik:1577 km et afwerptanks op 821 km met standaardtank en twee 227-kg bommen.
Vliegtijd:2u24min met standaardtanks.
Gewicht:Leeg:4445 kg;Max. startgewicht 6010 kg
Afmetingen:Spanwijdte 12,67m;Lengte 9,74m;Hoogte 4,67m;Vleugeloppervlak 25,93 vierk.m
Bewapening:vier vaste 20-mm Hispano kanonnen vooraan in de vleugels,plus maximaal 907 kg aan bommen/raketten.

Afbeelding

Afbeelding

Een Typhoon krijgt zijn dodelijke lading(vliegveld Melsbroek/Brussel,1944).
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Hawker Typhoon.[Wo2-GB.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 05 dec 2008, 20:46


NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Hawker Typhoon.[Wo2-GB.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 12 dec 2008, 10:47

The Hawker Typhoon (affectionate known as the "Tiffie") was initially intended as a dedicated interceptor and set to succeed the 1930's-era Hawker Hurricane and was first drawn up in 1937. The system was designed to a British Air Ministry specification (Specification F.18/37) calling for such an aircraft to accept the new line of Rolls-Royce and Napier 2,000 horsepower engines. The Typhoon was predicted to do just that thanks to the promising Napier 24-cylinder, liquid-cooled 2,000-plus horsepower Sabre engine selected for the airframe. At least on paper, the Typhoon would have given even the fabled Supermarine Spitfire and its legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine a run for its money but history would prove otherwise and set the Typhoon on a different course altogether.

Development
As promising as the all-new aircraft was, initial development revealed several key issues with the design, especially of the fuselage construction and the new Sabre engine. First flight was achieved in February of 1940. On May 9th, 1940, a prototype Typhoon recorded a devastating failure of the fuselage at the base of the empennage, just aft of the cockpit, while the Sabre engine suffered many-a-teething problem. The situation became quite complicated to the point that the future of the Typhoon was in jeopardy and the Air Ministry was looking to cancel the project altogether in favor of purchasing American-made Republic P-47 Thunderbolts instead. Only the arrival of the Focke-Wulf 190 "Wurger" series fighter in September of 1941 helped to fuel the Typhoon project as a viable contender to the elusive high-performing German fighter.

Design
Visually, the Typhoon offered a menacing pose. The large under-fuselage chin radiator installation was its most notable identifying physical feature. The scoop sat directly below and behind the propeller spinner and integrated into the lower portion of the fuselage. The pilots cockpit was situated near the middle of the design, above and aft of the wing trailing edge. The fuselage itself was almost tubular in shape and ended in a traditional empennage with a rounded vertical fin. Wings were of a low-monoplane cantilever design and rounded. The undercarriage was traditional with retractable main landing gears and a retractable tail wheel. Construction was mostly of all metal stressed skin.

Armament
In its initial form, the Typhoon was to be armed with no fewer than 12 x 7.7mm machine guns (.303 caliber). Though sounding impressive, heavier caliber weapons such as 12.7mm (.50 caliber) heavy machine guns and cannons were becoming the norm on aircraft throughout the war. As such, the Typhoon had its principle weapons suite upgraded to a more formidable array of 4 x 20mm cannon. two to a wing, and identified by the cannon barrel fairings extending from the leading wing edges. The final production Typhoon could further augment this armament through the addition of high-explosive rockets or traditional drop bombs as needed (the latter on two underwing hardpoints).

Cockpit
The cockpit of the Hawker Typhoon required a rather steep climb up. Whereas later versions of the aircraft featured the more traditional sliding bubble canopy, early models were fitted with an automobile-style hinged door ala the Bell Airacobra. These early cockpit designs were also noted for their poor visibility. Though the automobile-style doors made for a more familiar method of entry into the Typhoon cockpit it likewise presented the pilot with an unusual mode of exit should he be faced with the prospect of bailing out of the aircraft. As with some other models of World War Two aircraft, the Hawker Typhoon's cockpit was also susceptible to maintaining high and dangerous levels of carbon monoxide for the pilot to the point that the pilot was practically required to wear his oxygen mask from the moment he started his engine prior to take-off to the moment he had safely landed and powered his engine down. Cockpit noise was also noted as high by former pilots.

Instrumentation was traditional for British aircraft, being of the standardized "flying blind" layout and was regarded as a most convenient arrangement (A standardized cockpit made for a friendlier transition for pilots from trainer to operational aircraft as layouts were relatively identical in most British aircraft to the point that the operator could in fact fly any RAF aircraft without aid from the instruments). The pilot had access to a traditional control column with a circular spade-style grip. The grip offered easy access to the firing button for the 4 x 20mm cannon and a brake control. The throttle handle was set off to the left side of the cockpit and featured conveniently-placed bomb/rocket, flap and undercarriage controls.

Operational Service
Once fielded in August of 1941, the Typhoon met with mixed results. It became the RAF's first 400 mile-per-hour fighter on one hand but on the other, the Napier engine - despite its power - proved quite complex and needed much attention while still being prone to failures in the field. Such was the desire to "make it happen" that the powerplant was debuted before it should have been made officially ready on any platform. The price paid for pure speed was off-set by the aircrafts generally poor rate-of-climb. Additionally, despite being designed as a high-altitude performance interceptor, the Typhoon performed quite poorly at height above medium altitude and surprisingly proved its worth in low to mid-altitude sorties instead. In this way, the Typhoon actually fared better in the role than the Supermarine Spitfire.

As a result, Typhoons became more and more relegated to this role and armed for more conventional ground strike capabilities than intended. The Typhoon could engage ground targets and still offer up competing performance when tangling with German bombers and fighters at this level. More importantly, the marauding Fw-190 low-level attacks across the southern British coast were finally answered with the arrival of the Typhoon as the fighter-bomber proved adept at engaging these small German aircraft on their own terms at their optimal operating altitude. The structural deficiency in the tail design also led to delays and some unfortunate fatalities though this was later addressed temporarily through the use of reinforcement via twenty alloy riveted "fishplates" at the empennage base.

By 1943, the Typhoon was being fitted with air-to-ground rockets and 2 x 250lb bombs underwing. This, coupled with its low-altitude performance, made for an exceptional fighter-bomber hybrid. Typhoons played a large role in disrupting German communications prior to the D-Day landings in both day and night sorties. As the Allied foothold into France increased, so too did the level of Typhoon usage in terms of helping to form new frontlines for the advancing ground forces - Typhoons began operating from French-based airfields and, more importantly, Holland, giving them access to targets on German soil. Typhoons followed the ground fighting through to the end of the war in this role, taking on escort fighter support from Spitfires and Mustangs when needed. Their shellacking of German support elements proved pivotal in the strategic pushes that would ultimately lead to the Allied victory. No German target proved save from the cannons, bombs and rockets of the Typhoon - be it ammunition stores, vehicles, train yards or ground forces themselves. By the end of the war, some 3,300 Typhoons were produced. Despite these numbers, they became all but extinct with the arrival of the jet age in the post-war world. Typhoons were removed from service as soon as 1946. At the height of its use, the Typhoon made up 26 total squadrons - pretty impressive considering the design was almost laid to rest during its development.

Conclusion
Aircraft such as the Typhoon are wonders in wartime. Their initial designs are often rigged for failure from the outset only to have the ever-changing face of warfare force a new role-player to be added to the ranks. Such was the case with the Hawker Typhoon that, in all respects, it was actually a successful aircraft despite the design's drawbacks and limitations. The RAF had taken notice of the platforms capabilities and fielded it accordingly. By the time the Germans took note, it was all but too late for the Reich.

Factoids
• Design of the aircraft is credited to Sydney Camm
• Production handled by both Hawker and (later) Gloster
• The Typhoon was the RAF's first 400mph-capable fighter
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Hawker Typhoon.[Wo2-GB.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 29 jul 2010, 20:09

NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Tandorini
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Berichten: 2759
Geregistreerd: 30 mei 2008, 23:18


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