Fiat G.91,tactisch verkennings- en licht aanvalsvliegtuig

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Fiat G.91,tactisch verkennings- en licht aanvalsvliegtuig

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 29 mei 2009, 18:07

De Fiat G.91 was de winnaar van een NAVO-ontwerpcompetitie uit begin jaren vijftig voor een lichtgewicht verkenner en tactisch aanvalsvliegtuig.Het toestel vloog op 9 augustus 1956 voor het eerst,maar werd tegen de verwachtingen in niet op grote schaal in gebruik genomen door deNAVO-partners.Er werden orders geplaatst door Griekenland,Turkije,Italië en West-Duitsland,maar aanvankelijk werd het toestel alleen bij de luchtmachten van beide laatstgenoemde landen operationeel.Er werden er meer dan 700 van gebouwd.De meeste daarvan waren van het type G.91R.Voorzien van een fotoverkennerneus met twee Vinten camera's.Voor het fotograferen van doelen,met behoud van hun aanvalscapaciteit.

Afbeelding

Productievarianten.
De eerste productievarianten was de G.91R/1,die begin jaren zestig operationeel werd bij de Italiaanse luchtmacht.De AMI kocht uiteindelijk meer dan honderd van deze toestellen.De grootste afnemer was echter West-Duitsland,dat veel door Fiat gebouwde G.91R/3 toestellen kocht en ook aanzienlijke aantallen in licentie bouwde door een consortium dat bestond uit Dornier,Messerschmitt en Heinkel.De eerste Duitse G.91R/3 maakte in juli 1961 zijn eerste vlucht.In 1962 werd het type operationeel.
De Luftwaffe nam later ook ongeveer vijftig G.91R/4 toestellen in gebruik.Aanvankelijk waren die bestemd om evenredig tussen Griekenland en Turkije verdeeld te worden,maar die landen wezen het toestel af.Na een relatief korte carrière bij de Luftwaffe gingen de toestellen naar Portugal,dat ook enige G.91R/3's had overgenomen toen Duitsland eind jaren zeventig en begin jaren tachtig overstapte op de Alpha Jet als licht aanvalstoestel.


Afbeelding

G.91Y en G.91T.
Italië gebruikte ook een variant met de aanduiding G.91Y.Dit toestel week sterk af van de basisversie; het had bijvoorbeeld twee General Electric J85-GE-13A motoren met naverbrander in plaats van de enkele Orpheus van de G.91R.Wel had de Y-versie ook een verkennerneus.Het prototype werd gevolgd door 66 productie-exemplaren,waarvan de laatste in 1996 werd afgeschaft.Naast de eenzitters werden ongeveer 160 G.91T tweezits-trainers gebouwd,die werden gebruikt door Italië,Portugal en West-Duitsland.

Specificatie.
G.91Y.
Type:
Eenzits tactische verkennings- en aanvalsjager.
Motoren: Twee General Electric J85-GE-13A turbojets met naverbrander van 18,15 kN.
Prestaties: Topsnelheid:1100 km/u ; Plafond:12.500 m ; Vliegbereik op zeeniveau:600 km ; Ferrybereik:3500 km.
Gewichten: leeg:3900 kg ; Maximaal startgewicht:8700 kg.
Afmetingen: Spanwijdte:9,01 m ; Lengte:11,67 m ; Hoogte:4,43 m ; Vleugeloppervlak:16,42 m².
Bewapening: Twee 30-mm DEFA kanonnen en maximaal 1914 kg aan afwerpbare middelen.
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Re: Fiat G.91,tactisch verkennings- en licht aanvalsvliegtuig

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 01 jan 2010, 10:31







NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

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Re: Fiat G.91,tactisch verkennings- en licht aanvalsvliegtui

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 24 okt 2010, 19:10

Fiat's little Sabre - the G.91

Lovely called 'Gina' by most pilots who flew it, the FIAT G.91 was a classic example of how economy of effort mixed with the use of a modified existing proven design could lead to succes. Its resemblance to the famous Sabre was not coincidence, as Fiat had accumulated considerable experience in the building of the F-86K under licence. For many years the G.91 was also the mount of the Italian Air Force aerobatic team, the Frecce Tricolori, becoming a familiar sight at airshows in many countries.


Een G.91Y (MM 6443) 101° Gruppo/8° Stormo, in speciale kleuren n.a.v. zijn laatste vlucht bij het 8° Stormo.

The Fiat G.91 had its origins in a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) specification formulated in 1953 for a light-weight, lowcost strike fighter for use by NATO menber air forces, mainly as a result of the 9th Working Session of the Atlantic Council which had met, and discussed such a matter, in Lisbon in february of the previous year. The requirements for a light-Weight Strike Fighter (LWSF) were forlumated and transmitted to SHAPE (Supreme Headquaters Allied Powers in Europe) in Paris. During this same period the US Government inaugurated its Mutual Weapons Development Program (MWDP), intended to make use of European aeronautical design and production facilities, and to lessen the dependence of NATO's European states on US industry which could have a negative effect in time of war. Foremost among the requisities was its ability to operate from semi-prepered airfields in a wide spectrum of ground-attack missions.
Simple maintenance and an autonomy from airfield equipment were also emphasised. Proposals were to be submitted within two months of the issue of the specifications while the first 30 aircraft were to be available by the first quarter of 1957. These specifications were embodied in NATO Basic Military Requirement No.1 (NBMR-1) which was issued by SHAPE on 18 march 1954 to interested aircraft firms in Europe. An evaluating commitee was set up by NATO's Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development (NAGARD) to examine 10 proposals submitted by three nations. Britain presented the Folland Gnat and a lightweight version of the Hunter; France proposed the Breguet 1001 and 1100 Taon, Dassault Mystere XXVI (later renamed Etendard VI) and Etendard IV, Sud-Est SE5003 Barouder and Sud-Oest Trident; Italy offered the FIAT G.91 and the Aerfer Sagittario II. These were short-listed to three: the 1001 Taon, the Etendard VI and the FIAT G.91. In june 1955, the US Goverment, through its MWDP, signed agreements for the development of three prototypes of each, while in a separate US-UK agreement, the British Bristol Orpheus jet engine was selected as the powerplant of the future LWSF.

NATO trials.
Fiat had such faith in its 'scaled-down Sabre' that the company embarked on large-scale tooling as a private venture. An order by NATO of 27 pre-production aircraft was placed in july 1956,although the fly-off by the three short-listed finalists had still to take place in october 1957.
First flight of the G.91 prototype, NC.1, was performed by Riccardo Bignamini on 9 august 1956 at Caselle, a year ahead of the Taon's. Its weight of 5800lbs (2650 kg) made it somewhat heavier than that specified by SHAPE but this did not affect its performance. It was powered by a 4050 lb/st (1837 kg) Bristol (later Bristol Siddeley) Orpheus B.Or.01 and had a Martin-Baker Mk.4 ejection seat installed. Test flights continued regularly, Bignamini being joined by S. Marsan and V. Sanseverino in the development programme. During its 24th flight on 20 february 1957, Bignamini easily exceeded the speed of sound at 29.000ft (9000 m) for four consecutive times. Seven days later, however, the Martin-Baker ejection seat saved Bignamini's life when he was forced to eject, after encoutering excessive tail flutter in a high-speed run at low altitute over Cavour, near Turin. Although NC.1 was completely destroyed, all the recording equipment which Fiat had wisely installed was salvaged from the crash site.
An intensive investigation was launched to solve the flutter problem, the Fiat engineers being assisted in this respect by French engineers and by the US NACA, the latter also making available its wind-tunnel facilities at Langely. The findings were incorporated into the second prototype,NC.1bis (MM.565) and included a larger tailplane of a modified shape, a ventral strake and a slightly raised cockpit (2.5 ins - 6 cm). Powered by the 1850 lb/st (2200 kg/s) B.Or.03, and carrying full gun armament, the second prototype first flew on 26 july 1957, and was still under some flight restrictions when trials to determine the final selection of the NATO LWSF were held at the Centre d'Essais en Vol, Bretigny, in France, ending on 4 october 1957. The evaluation team consisted of six test pilots and six engineers from four NATO countries: Lt Cdr W.R. Hart, RN, seconded from 'A' Squadron of the A&AEE Boscombe Down for Britain; Captain Bigand from France; Captain M. Colagiovanni from Italy; and Major R.B. Hippert and Captain R.F. Titus (USAF) together with Lieutnant J.F. Lasseter (USN) fron the United States.
In addition to the three Orpheus-powered prototypes ordered by the MWDP (the G.91, the taon and the Etendard VI), the team also evaluated two other French designs the Sud-Est Baroudeur and the Dassault Etendard IV, both powered by the SNECMA Atar turbojets, included in the trials at the strong insistence of the French. Three weeks of exhaustive tests were conducted to establish taxiing characteristics on runway and semi-prepared strips; slow-speed handling ans stalls; static and dynamic longitudinal, lateral and direstional stability; take-off, landing and overshoot qualities; stability in manoeuvring flight; longitudinal trim changes with power, etc; effectiveness of controls and trim; high Mach number effects; evaluation of mechanical or electronic devices affecting flying qualities; rate of roll; measurement of static thrust; aircraft tare weight; airspeed and altimeter position errors; take-off and landing distances; climb performance; level flight performance; mission profile tests; turn-round times (refuelling and re-arming); cockpit layout; ground handling; ease of maintenance; and ground firing of machine guns.
The G.91 came out as being superior to all competitors, but it was not until january 1958 that this decision was officially announced. France came out of this competition as the only loser; Italy had won with the airframe, while Britain had secured important production of the Bristol Orpheus and Martin-Baker ejection seat.
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Re: Fiat G.91,tactisch verkennings- en licht aanvalsvliegtui

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 28 okt 2010, 19:27

G.91 for sale.
Following the flight of the second prototype, a third (MM.566) was completed soon after, followed by the first pre-production aircraft (MM.6238). These were, in fact, the two machines that participated in the NATO trials of september/october 1957.
Having gambled all its stakes on the G.91 enabled Fiat to produce the pre-production series of G.91's in large numbers within a short period of time. By august 1958 it had built enough machines to equip a unit of the Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI), the 5a Aerobrigata's 103° Gruppo CTL (Caccia Tattici Leggeri - Light Tactical Fighter) of the Reparto Sperimentale Volo (SPA - Experimental Flight Test Centre) at Pratica di Mare, near Rome.
The aircraft were operated from outlying fields, with unprepared surfaces, by Italian and German pilots. After a 2000-hour programme, the 103° Gruppo moved to Frosinone, where a 4500-foot (1400 m) grass surface was available, and later in june/early july 1959 there was another move to Friuli, in Northern Italy, where the unit operated for the benefit of an international commission led by General Johannes Steinhoff of the Luftwaffe. Operating from the grass surface of Campoformido, mottled with patches of muddy water, the G.91 took off fully loaded, to land later on a dusty airstrip near the Maniago firing range. Experimental take-offs and landings were also performed from the Udine-Trieste highway. Ten machines made no less than 140 sorties in four days, at 100% serviceability thanks also to the highly eficient ground crew who managed to turn-round an aircraft in only 10 minutes, and to change an engine in three quarters of an hour! By this time, the first tactical reconnaissance version, the G.91R, made its appearance in the form of four pre-production models (MM.6251, 6253, 6257, 6259), while the AMI placed an order for 50 G.91R/1's.
Luftwaffe representatives must have been truly impressed by the Friuli trials as they soon placed an order for 50 G.91R/3's, followed by a massive order for 294 machines to be produced under licence by a West Greman consortium, Flugzeug-Union Sud, headed by Dornier, but also including Messerschmitt, Heinkel and other sub-contractors.
France ordered 50 G.91R/2's while serious interest for the purchase of 25 R/4 aircraft each was shown by Greece and Turkey, under off-shore procurement basis. Austria placed orders for 12 R/3's and two trainers (development of the two-seater having already been initiated by Fiat) while interest from non-NATO countries was shown by Argentina and Switzerland in particular.
The R/3 version required by the Luftwaffe differed from the R/1 in having an additional pair of wing pylons, a pair of DEFA 30-mm cannon instead of the four 12.7-mm machine guns, and more sophisticated avionics. The R/4 for the Greeks and Turks carried also 4 wing pylons but had the armament of the R/1, while an R/5 possessing longer range was studied for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
O, 1 march 1964, the 313° Gruppo Addestramento Acrobatico, popularly known as the Frecce Tricolori aerobaticteam changed over from the F-86 Sabre to the G.91. For the first time after the World War II, Italy's national aerobatic team mounted an indigenous aircraft. For this purpose, the pre-production series of aircraft were extensively modified, resulting in a virtually different version, the G.91 PAN (Pattuglia Acrobatica Nazionale). Although painted in the traditional scheme of blue, red, white and green, the G.91 PAN was a fully operational aircraft, and coult carry arms if required.
Orders for the G.91 had reached the 500 mark, making its future look very promising. While the Luftwaffe honoured its commitments, and the AMI placed further orders, international politics and jalousies intervened, and interest began to wane. First to cancel their order were the French, while Greece, lured into procuring the F-5A, received only two R/4's. Then came the Austrian cancellation following their procurement of reconditioned J29F's from SAAB. All the other interested parties followed suit, while Norway's R/5 remained a paper project. Initially, even the US Army had shown an interest in the G.91, evaluating two AMI R/1's, a T/1 and two Luftwaffe R/3's at Fort Rucker, Alabama, but the matter ended there. Two G.91's (pre-production MM.6246 and R/1 MM.6285) carried British 'G' registrations (G-45/4 and G-45/5) between 1959 and 1961 during their stay at Bristol Siddeley in Britain for trials of the Orpheus B.Or.803.

The two-seater.
Even before the first prototype of the single-seat G.91 had flown, the development of an advanced trainer was considered necessary, and finance was produced for the construction of two pre-production aircraft, MM.6288 and 6289. Design and build dragged for a considerable period of time, and it was not before 21 may 1960 that the G.91T made its first flight. Powered by a 4850lb/st (2200 kg/s) Bristol Siddeley Orpheus B.Or.801-02, the G.91T maintained many of the characteristics of the G.91R, including the ability to operate from semi-prepared and grass surfaces, and full military capabilities. While flying surfaces remained practically the same, the fuselage was extensively modified, with an extension of 4ft 6 ins (1,41 m), enabling the addition of a second cockpit in tandem. The pupil, who sat in front, enjoyed an excellent forward view, as had the instructor, thanks to his slightly raised position. Fixed armament was reduced from four to two 12.7-mm machine-guns which were not,however, interchangeable with cannon.
The first examples off the Fiat production line, the G.91T/3, went to the Luftwaffe which had ordered 44. A further 22 were later produced by Flugzeug-Union Sud for the Luftwaffe, introducing the instructor's slightly 'bubbled' canopy necessitated by the installation of a different type of ejection seat. German production of the G.91T came to a close in october 1972, and among the units receiving the T.3 were Waffenschule 50 at Erding (32) and Erprobungsstelle 61 at Manching (2).
Italian production delivered 76 G.91T/1's to the AMI, the last example leaving the line in 1974. The G.91T/1 Srs 2 also had the 'bubble' instructor's canopy like the German T/3, this modification being effected retrospectively to all previous T/1 's, R/1's and German R/3's.
The majority of the AMI's T/1's went to the SVBAA (Scuola Volo Basico Avanzato Aviogetti - Advanced Basic Jet Flying School) at Amendola. It received its first examples in december 1964 after relinquishing the Fiat G.82, which served for only a short period, and the Lockheed T-33. The school is still flying the old faithful G.91T/1 from Amendola at the time of writing, though in 1986 it was redisignated 60° Brigata Aerea (201° and 204° Gruppi) and therefore carried codes in the '60' series rather than the previous 'SA'. The Luftwaffe transferred eleven G.91T/3's to Portugal between 1976 and 1982, and these were distributed between the two operational G.91 squadrons of the Fôça Aérea Portuguesa, Esquadra 301 and 303, serials being 1801-1811.

Italian Air Force service.
The first unit of the AMI to receive the G.91R/1's was the 14° Gruppo of the 2° Aerobrigata, in exchange for its Sabre Mk IV in march 1961 at Treviso-Sant' Angelo where, in the meantime, the 103° Gruppo had also transferred. The 14° and 103° Gruppi were amalgamated to form the Reparto Volo G.91 of the 51a Aerobrigata in october 1962.
The AMI went through a restructuring period in october 1964. The 14° Gruppo (156°, 157°, 158° Squadriglie) and the 103° Gruppo (210°,213°, 247°Squadriglie) formed the 2° Stormo Caccia Tattici Ricognitori Leggeri (CTRL -Light Tactical Reconnaissance Fighter Group) at Treviso-Sant' Angelo, equipped with G.91/R1, R/1A and R/1B. The original CTRL, designation later became CBR (Caccia Bombardieri Ricognitori - Reconnaissance Fighter Bomber), much more in consonance with the aircraft's role.
It was only in the summer of 1989 that the new AMX replaced the G.91 in the 103° Gruppo, the unit handing over its remaining G.91's to the 14° Gruppo before moving to Istrana.
The 13° Gruppo formed part of the 2° Aerobrigata as from march 1962, but became an autonomous unit from the following october. It received its R/1B's only in march 1965, when it became attached to the 2° Stormo CBR, and in september 1967 transferred to Brindisi where it became the operational element of the 32° Stormo CBR, a position it occupied until its re-equipment with the G.91Y in april 1974.

With the Luftwaffe.
The Luftwaffe was eventually to receive 344 G.91R/3's and 66 G.91T/3's. Sixty-two of the R/3's were built by Fiat, 12 by Fiat but assembled by Flugzeug-Union Sud, and the remaining 270 were built outright by the German consortium between july 1965 and may 1966, together with 22 of the T/3's in 1972. Additionally, the fifty R/4 cancelled by Greece and Turkey were taken over by the Luftwaffe and used for training purposes, particularly by WSLw 50. First Luftwaffe unit to reseive the G.91R/3's was the experimental Erprobunsstelle 61 in september 1961, consisting of five aircraft c/n NC.54-NC.58 (YA + 011 to YA + 015). Early in 1961, Waffenschule der Luftwaffe 30 (code BA), later incorporated into WSLw 50 (code BD), started the first instructor's course at Erding, near Munich with R/3's and the first T/3's, under Italian guidance. The first operational unit.
Aufklarungsgeschwader (AG) 53, was formed to receive the R/3 in october 1961, also at Erding (code EC). Meanwhile, the first German-built R/3's started to arrive from Dornier's works, the first examples enabling the creation of another unit, AG 54 (code ED) at Alhorn.
From then on, units re-equipped in quick succession with the Gina: Jagdgeschwader (JG) 72 coded JB at Husum ; JG 73 coded JC at Pferdsfeld; Leichtkampfgeschwader (LeKG) 43 coded MC at Oldenburg; and LeKG 44 coded MD at Leipheim. In may 1964, JG 74 and JG 73 were redesignated LeKG 41 (MA) and LeKG 42 (MB) respectively, reflecting more realistically their operational capabilities. G.91 operations with AG 53 and AG 54 were short-lived, their reconnaissance role being taken over by the newly-arrived RF-104G Starfighters.
The Luftwaffe continued to test the G.91's capabilities for equite some time, including the formation of a small unit (Lehr-und-Ubungsschwarm G.91). Among other trials, this unit performed familiarisation take-offs and landings from stretches of highway and on grass surfaces, repeated in 1963 at the Italian base of Rivolto where similar joint exercises between AG 53 and the Italian Air Force's 2° Aerobrigata were carried out. A pair of R/3's went through hot climate trials at Colomb-Bechar, in the Algerian Sahara, for 2 months in 1964; this also served as a good occasion to test-fire the AS.20 missile.
In april 1975, the first F-4F Phantoms arrived for LeKG 42 (redesignated JBG 35). LeKG 43 and LeKG 41 converted to the Alpha Jet in 1980 and 1982 respectively, while LeKG 44 was disbanded in march 1975 at Leipheim. The last front-line G.91 in Luftwaffe service made its final flight from Husum on 11 februari 1982 with LeKG 41. Since its introduction into the Luftwaffe in 1963 the G.91 had flown 792.000 hours, the highest utilisation rate by a single aircraft being 3080 hours. A small munber of 'unarmed' G.91R and T remained under the charge of Condor Flug for target towing duties; since they were still Luftwaffe property, they retained their original military codes and markings.

In Portugal.
Portugal purchaced forty G.91R/4's (5401-5440) in 1966 from West Germany for use in its colonies in Africa. The deal included the use of training facilities by the Luftwaffe at Beja, in southern Portugal. The sale contract stipulated that the G.91's were to be used only on Portugese territory; however the Portugese Air Force (FAP) went round this proviso by describing the African Colonies as Portugese sovereign territory.
These G.91's first entered service in 1966 with Esquadra de Caça 10 at Base Aerea 10 (Beira, Mozambique), and with Esquadra de Caça 12 at Base Aerea 12 (Bissalanca, Portugese Guinea, later known as Guinea-Bissau), replacing F-84G Thunderjets and PV-2 Harpoons. They became quite popular with their crews, who flew them in an anti-guerilla rôle. By 1971 the G.91's were concentrated with Esq. 10 at Beira, being also extensively used by Esqudra de Caça 9 at Base Aerea 9 in Angola, another Portugese colony fighting for independence.
Salazar's dictatorial rule fell in april 1974,bringing Portugal's colonial policy to an end. G.91's based overseas were withdrawn to the mainland and to Lajes, in the Azores, which remained Portugese sovereign territory. For many years, the G.91R/4 formed the backbone of the FAP, reducing in numbers due to attrition. It was only natural that Portugal would, therefore, jump on the bargain sale by the Luftwaffe in the summer of 1974 of a number of G.91R/3's which were being retired from front-line service. In fact, more G.91's were acquired by the FAP as they became available, reaching a total of 96 examples when the last batch was received in 1982. This total included 33 R/3's (5441-5473) and 11 T/3's (1801-1811). The balance were reduced to spares or used as instructional airframes.
This influx of G.91's enabled at formation of two new full-strength units, Esq 301 Os Jaguares at BA 6 (Monatijo) with R/3's and T/3's and Esq 303 Os Tigres at BA 4 (Lajes, Azores) with R/4's and T/3's. The G.91R/4's received an avionics update, and were fitted to carry and fire Sidewinder AAM's. Representation in Tiger Meets fell on Esq 303 Os Jaguares, winning the Siver Tiger Trophy in 1985. A small number (some sources say four) of ex-FAP G.91's are known to have been used, albeit for a very short time, by the Força Aérea Popular de Abgola, but their fate is unknown. Portugal retired its Fiat G.91's with a last official flight on 15 june 1993 after having clocked 75.000 hrs of operational flying with the Fôrça Aérea Portugesa.
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