Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

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Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 07 jun 2008, 15:43

Nieuw tijdperk in oorlogvoering.
Tussen 1940 en 1945 creëerden internationale wetenschappers,gebruikmakend van het kapitaal,de wetenschappelijke expertise en de industriële basis van Amerika,twee typen atoombommen.Beide werden met afschuwelijke gevolgen ingezet om de oorlogmet Japan te beëindigen.
In reactie op het nieuws dat Duitsland actief bezig was met de ontwikkeling van een atoombom,schreven de voor de nazi's gevluchte Hongaarse natuurkundige Leo Szilard en Albert Einstein een brief aan president Roosevelt,aarin ze hem aanspoorden om het programma rond een A-bom te beginnen.Onder de bezielende leiding van generaal Leslie Groves ging het Manhattan Project in 1940 serieus van start.

Splijtstofkeuze.
De keuze voor een bepaald type splijtstof was van wezenlijk belang voor het project.Hoewel de Deense natuurkundige Niels Bohr uranium had voorgesteld en Glen Seaborg al in 1941 met de suggestie voor plutonium kwam,bleef het probleem van het verkrijgen van voldoende hoeveelheden bestaan.Uranium is redelijk goed verkrijgbaar,omdat het op natuurlijke wijze als erts voorkomt.Plutonium wordt vanuit uranium verkregen.Maar geen van beide was meteen toepasbaar voor het maken van een atoombom.Szilard had uiteengezet dat de splijtstof voor een a-bom een kettingreactie moest veroorzaken.Dit is et proces waarbij een uranium- of plutonium-kern door een neutron wordt getroffen.De kern splijt,waarbij twee neutronen vrijkomen,die op hun beurt met twee kernen botsen,en zo voort.Om een kettingreactie tot stand te brengen en te handhaven,moet er een kritieke massa van isotopen zijn die voor de botsingen en zodoende voor grotere aantallen neutronen zorgen.Puur uranium heeft een kritieke massa van ongeveer vijftig kilo.Omdat de technologie voor een toereikende zuivering nog niet bestond,berekende Oppenheimer echter dat er zeker twee keer zoveel voor nodig was.Voor plutonium is de kritieke massa zestien kilo.Bij de kettingreactie komen enorme hoeveelheden energie vrij.
Bohr en Seaborg hadden aangetoond dat uranium en plutonium in vele vormen,of isotopen,voorkomen,waarbij er slechts één per soort een kettingreactie veroorzaakt.Uraniumerts bestaat voor 99% uit U-238 en voor 1% uit U-235.Alleen U-235 is meteen splijtbaar.Omdat de twee isotopen vrijwel identiek zijn,was het moeilijk ze te splitsen.Magnetische splijting draaide op een teleurstelling uit,toen de machine in het Berkeley Laboratorium van de Universiteit van Californië,de cyclotron,niet naar behoren bleek te werken.Splijting per gacentrifuge was mogelijk,maar nog onontgonnen gebied en vereiste meer onderzoekstijd dan de wetenschappers van het Manhattan Project zich konden veroorloven.Uiteindelijk werd in Oak Ridge,Tennessee,een systeem ontwikkeld waarbij uranium hexafluoridegas diverse uiterst fijne filters passeerde.Met deze gassplitsing kon U-238 uiteindelijk van het lichtere U-235 gescheiden worden.Maar zelfs bij een op volle toeren draaiende productie was de opbrengst slechts genoeg voor één bom.

Experiment.
De uraniumbom,genaamd 'Little Boy',was een relatief simpel ontwerp.Zonder de luxe van voldoende tijd of voldoende U-235,gebruikten de Manhattan-wetenschappers alle beschikbare uranium voor een simpele bom waarvan ze zeker waren dat deze zou werken.Aan het ene uiteinde van de cilindrische bom bevond zich het merendeel van de U-235.In het midden zat een klein,hol gedeelte en een kleinere dosis splijtstof was in het andere uiteinde geplaatst.Na het afwerpen werd de kleine lading door een conventioneel explosief in de grotere lading gedreven.Hun gecombineerde massa overschreed dan de kritieke massa en veroorzaakte een kettingreactie.Op 6 augustus 1945 werd de 'Little Boy' door de B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay op Hiroshima afgeworpen.De bom ontplofte op een hoogte tussen vijf- en zeshonderd meter,met een kracht van ongeveer 15 kiloton.De 'Little Boy' veroorzaakte bijna 130.000 doden.

'Fat Man.'
De plutoniumbom genaamd 'Fat Man',was identiek aan het eerdere testwapen,de 'Gadget'.Deze 'Gadget' was op 16 juli 1945 op het Trinity-testterrein nabij Alamogordo,New Mexico,tot ontploffing gebracht.De kritieke massa van P-239 bleek tot tien kilo te kunnen worden beperkt als de splijtstof werd omgeven door de ruim voorradige isotoop U-238.Om tot een kettingreatie te komen,moest het plutonium eerst worden blootgesteld aan een radioactieve startlading,in dit geval een mengsel van beryllium en polonium.Met standaard explosieven werden voorgevormde blokjes P-239 tegen een bol van beryllium/polonium geschoten.De plutoniumdelen smolten dan samen en vormden een schil om de startlading,die boven de kritieke massa kwam.Op 9 augustus 1945 explodeerde de 'Fat Man' op een hoogte van vijf- tot zeshonderd meter boven Nagasaki met een kracht van 21 kiloton.Hierbij kwamen 70.000 mensen direct om het leven.Het uiteindelijkedodental ten gevolge van de 'Little Boy' en de 'Fat Man' lag echter nog vele malen hoger.De radioactieve straling zorgde decennialang voor geboorteafwijkingen en kanker.

Afbeelding

Testexplosie tijdens het 'Trinity-project'.

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Atoombom 'Little Boy'.


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Replica van de 'Fat Man'.


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Een paddestoelwolk stijgt op na de ontploffing boven Nagasaki.

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De verwoesting van Hiroshima.......geen commentaar.


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Gembaku Dome,Hiroshima.


Afbeelding

De Enola Gay land na haar verschrikkelijke missie.
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Re: Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

Berichtdoor Baracca » 29 jul 2008, 19:27

PROJECT SILVERPLATE

Afbeelding

LITTLE BOY, the first atomic bomb dropped on Japan over Hiroshima, used a “cannon”-type triggering mechanism, measured 28 inches across and 128 inches long and weighed 9,000 pounds. It yielded the equivalent of approximately 12,500 tons of high explosive.

Afbeelding

FAT MAN, the second atomic bomb dropped on Japan over Nagasaki, was an implosion weapon, characterized by a near-spherical shape. Weighing 10,000 pounds, it measured 60 inches across and 128 inches long. It yielded the equivalent of 22,000 tons of high explosive.

Afbeelding

B-29-35-MO ‘Bockscar’
Unit: 393rd BMS, 509th CG
Serial: 77/R (44-27297)
Pilot - commander of 393rd BMS Major Charles Sweeney. On 9th August 1945 he dropped the second atomic bomb (Fat Man) over Nagasaki. The plane overall Silver-plate. Now on display at WPAFB Museum.


Afbeelding

B-29-45-MO ‘Enola Gay’
Unit: 313th BW, 509th CG
Serial: 82/R (44-86292)
North Field, Tinian, Summer 1945. Crew CO Colonel Paul Tibbets. On 6th August 1945 this bomber dropped A-bomb on Hirosima.


On Sunday, August 5, 1945, the combat forces of the United States for the first time had possession of an atomic bomb. At the “tech area” adjacent to North Field on the island of Tinian in the Marianas, airmen had been working for days on the final phase of assembling the weapon. This was the task of the 1st Ordnance Squadron, Special (Aviation), 509th Composite Group, 313th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy), Twentieth Air Force, United States Army Strategic Air Forces.

The technicians and ordnance men at the assembly area constructed the bomb, dubbed LITTLEBOY, from components that had arrived during the previous two weeks. The uranium core was inserted, but the fusing mechanism was left unarmed. Then on the afternoon of August 5, airmen placed the weapon aboard a trolley, covered it with a tarpaulin, and towed it by tractor under heavy guard to the loading area. There LITTLEBOY was moved down a ramp into a pit and a plane parked over it.

The Commanding Officer of the 509th Composite Group, Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., had already selected the aircraft to deliver the bomb. A Boeing B-29 Superfortress, serial number 44-86292, was one of the 509th’s planes that had been modified under Army Air Forces (AAF) PROJECT SILVERPLATE to carry atomic weapons. Seventeen feet long and weighing nearly five tons, even without its electrical connections, LITTLE BOY would not fit in the bomb bay of a conventional B-29. Tibbets intended to fly the plane himself, and he named it Enola Guy after his mother. The bomb was hoisted into the B-29’s bomb bay and secured, after which the doors were closed.

Tibbets chose the crew for the crucial mission. Though it resembled a conventional Superfortress crew, there were some special features. The regular pilot of the plane was the copilot. Tibbets personally selected the navigator and bombardier and assigned the 509th’s radar countermeasures officer, 1st Lt. Jacob Beser. Also on board were the enlisted members of the regular crew, including a flight engineer, radio operator, radar operator, mechanic, and tail gunner. Two key specialists were prepared for the mission: U.S. Navy Capt. William S. Parsons, a leading officer of the MANHATTAN PROJECT which designed the bomb, went as weaponeer, and 2d Lt. Morris R. Jeppson as his assistant. Parsons was responsible for arming the bomb during flight.

At 0245 hours on Monday, a large crowd watched the Enola Gay take off. Other B-29s, carrying observers, followed it into the air. Tibbets headed his bomber in the direction of Japan. The primary target was Hiroshima, with Kokura as secondary and Nagasaki the tertiary. At 0815 hours Tibbets heard from the weather observer over Hiroshima and decided to attack the primary target. Captain Parsons had already armed the weapon. At 0911 hours the plane reached the initial point and the bombardier began his bomb run. At 0915 (0815 Hiroshima time) the bombardier released the weapon. Tibbets turned the bomber sharply and began his descent at high speed, thus placing himself at a slant range of fifteen miles from the detonation point. There was a flash, and shortly afterward two shock waves struck the plane. The Enola Gay then turned to circle the area and observe. Parsons considered the blast more impressive visually than the test shot he had witnessed three weeks before. Sgt. George R. Caron, the tail gunner, recorded his impressions:

A column of smoke rising fast. It has a fiery red core. A bubbling mass, purple-gray in color, with that red core. It’s all turbulent. Fires are springing up everywhere …. There are too many to count. Here it comes, the mushroom shape that Captain Parsons spoke about… It’s maybe a mile or two wide.. . . It’s nearly level with us and climbing. It’s very black, but there is a purplish tint to the cloud. The base of the mushroom looks like a heavy undercast that is shot through with flames. The city must be below that. The flames and smoke are billowing out, whirling out into the foothills.

Tibbets set an eastward course and began the journey home, radioing a report of his success. He touched down at North Field at 1500 hours. In the crowd waiting to greet him was Gen. Carl A. Spaatz, Commanding General, U.S. Army Strategic Air Forces (USASTAF). As Tibbets climbed out of the plane, General Spaatz approached and presented him with the Distinguished Service Cross.

In Hiroshima the blast of the bomb generated vast heat, starting fires and inflicting enormous casualties. The shock wave destroyed nearly five square miles of the city. Even more devastating was the radiation in the huge cloud that engulfed Hiroshima. Eighty thousand died instantly or within a few days. At least as many more were injured. The prolonged effects of radiation exposure, however, meant that the actual toll would remain unknown for years.

The shock of Hiroshima, while great, did not immediately lead to surrender. The Japanese government was paralyzed by the deteriorating military situation and the massive destruction inflicted on the homeland by all types of American bombing. On August 9 Japan learned that Soviet forces had attacked their positions in Manchuria. Within hours Nagasaki met the same fate as Hiroshima. Although the damage and loss of life were less, there was no doubt of the destructive power of the new weapon. Finally, late that night, in an exceedingly rare personal intervention, the Emperor instructed the government to accept the Americans’ terms for peace. Further discussion ensued, with another Imperial intervention, before hostilities concluded on August 15. The world’s first nuclear war had ended in nine days. The world hoped that a second one would never start.

The bomb used against Nagasaki was of a different design from LITTLE BOY. Of comparable weight, it had a greater diameter and so was called FAT MAN. The difference between the bombs represented two separate solutions to the engineering problems encountered by the three year, $2 billion research and development effort known as the MANHATTAN PROJECT. In LITTLE BOY, a gun fired a quantity of uranium at another. When the two portions came together, “critical mass” occurred-the concentration of the amount of material necessary to make the explosion take place. FAT MAN achieved “critical mass” by implosion. The plutonium was placed in separate portions inside a layer of high explosive which, on detonation, forced the material together.” The fusing mechanism was designed to create an air burst by sending a radar signal to the ground to measure altitude. Lieutenant Beser’s job had been to make sure that a Japanese radar did not set off the mechanism.

Although the implosion bomb was more complex than the gun-type, and its ballistic properties were undesirable from a bombardier’s viewpoint, it was more efficient in terms of yield of energy to the amount of fissionable material used. Since the MANHATTAN PROJECT was concerned about the availability of fissionable uranium and plutonium, the FAT MAN was preferable. This was the design that had been tested in the very first atomic explosion at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945.

The Nagasaki mission on August 9 had not gone as smoothly as the previous one. Maj. Charles W. Sweeney, commander of the 393d Bombardment Squadron (Very Heavy), the 509th’s combat element, flew the mission in Bock’s Cur, the plane normally flown by Capt. Frederick C. Bock. Lt. Cmdr. Frederick L. Ashworth, U.S. Navy, was the weaponeer. FAT MAN could not be armed in flight, but there were other tasks for Ashworth to do. Kokura had been designated the primary target, but poor weather dictated the shift to the secondary target. A less accurate drop and the hilly terrain of Nagasaki combined to reduce the damage to the city, despite the great power of the bomb.

Meanwhile material for another weapon was being readied at the MANHATTAN PROJECT’S weapons laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico. But the officer in charge of the project, Maj. Gen. Leslie R. Groves, anticipated that the enemy would surrender after Nagasaki. He accordingly delayed delivery, and the material was never sent. To Groves as to so many others at the time, the connection between the atomic bombings and the Japanese surrender seemed obvious. Over the years, historians have debated this simple view of causation, and indeed controversy has surrounded the entire question of the wartime use of nuclear weapons. The divergence of opinion, however, does not alter the fact that key observers at the time believed that the atomic weapon ended the war.

One of the German atomic scientists commented that Hiroshima “…shows that the Americans are capable of real co-operation on a tremendous scale.” Particularly striking was the collaboration between the MANHATTAN PROJECT and the Army Air Forces. In the summer of 1943 Gen. Henry H. (“Hap”) Arnold, Commanding General of the AAF, received a request from the project for assistance in testing the ballistics of the bomb. Arnold and Groves subsequently conferred about organizing a combat unit. The resulting PROJECT SILVERPLATE was conducted with maximum secrecy. Even in the 509th Group, few knew the true mission of the unit. Nevertheless, despite this and other obstacles, the group was ready on time to receive the first bomb.

Those involved in the atomic project had little time to speculate on the implications of the weapon, but to the AAF commander and his staff, the atomic bomb confirmed the importance of technological advance in warfare. Bombs were the basic weapon of the air arm, and the employment of the atomic weapon called for the airmen to operate in familiar ways. Questions of the purpose, organization, control, and use of air power applied to this weapon as to any other. On the other hand, a bomb of such enormous power altered the entire mathematics of attacking a target.

Arnold’s own experience with the evolution of the technology had prepared him well for the dramatic new advance. As one of the first three U.S. Army officers to become a certified airplane pilot (having learned to fly from the Wright Brothers in 1911, Arnold became an early advocate of air power.” He was thus one of the small group that set the Army on the path of a major innovation in the history of warfare. It was fitting that in 1943 he should become intimately involved with another revolutionary technology.
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Re: Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 08 jan 2010, 20:57

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Re: Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 28 mei 2011, 21:35

The physicists Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein in August 1939 had warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt about the possibility that the Germans might create a bomb of unprecedented force from a new source of energy, uranium. The Advisory Committee on Uranium that Roosevelt then convoked finally reached a decision to build an atomic bomb for the Allies.

For this purpose, the Manhattan Project began in June 1942 under the supervision of Gen. Leslie R. Groves, deputy chief of construction for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He set up three widely separated production centers: the Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Hanford Engineer Works in the state of Washington; and Project Y at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Other work was conducted at the University of Chicago, where Italian refugee physicist Enrico Fermi on December 2, 1942, produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction, opening the way to develop nuclear fuel for atomic weapons. Scientists at Oak Ridge worked on uranium and others at Hanford on plutonium. Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer collected distinguished scientists and engineers to join under his direction at Los Alamos to produce the atomic weapons themselves.

Groves and Oppenheimer labored mightily, although not always peaceably, to keep all these independent-minded scientists working harmoniously and productively. After many false starts, some errors, and at least one serious accident, they tested the first atomic bomb in the New Mexican desert on July 16, 1945. It produced a human-made explosion of unprecedented strength. Samuel Morse is said to have asked about the telegraph he invented, “What hath God wrought?” The atomic scientists instead looked at each other, appalled, and asked, “What have we done?” Most of them were relieved that the decision of whether or not to use this terrible weapon rested on President Harry S. Truman.

His advisers differed among themselves. Chief of Staff Gen. George Marshall represented the majority opinion among the military—that dropping the bomb was the only way to avoid the tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of deaths on both sides they foresaw if the Allies had to invade Japan. They pointed to the terrible losses both sides had suffered on Okinawa, knowing that the next battle could only be worse. The scientists were divided. Szilard and others petitioned against using the bomb.

Some suggested that the Japanese be warned beforehand of the power of the atomic bomb, and others argued that Japanese representatives should be invited to a demonstration of the bomb’s power. Other scientists cautioned that the next atomic bomb might fail to explode and that only two more bombs were immediately available. The military said that given a warning, Japan might shoot down the plane carrying the atomic bomb and/or move American prisoners of war to the site. Physicist Edward Teller’s proposal to explode a bomb high over Tokyo Bay at night without warning was rejected because of doubts that such a demonstration would adequately impress the Japanese. In the end, the formal panel of scientists advised the president’s committee considering the question that they saw “no acceptable alternative to direct military use.”

Thanks to the cracking of the Japanese diplomatic code in 1940, the Americans knew that in the fall of 1944 and again in April 1945 the Japanese had approached the Soviet Union, with whom they were not yet at war, in the hopes of negotiating a conditional surrender. However, the intercepts also showed that the Japanese still held out for significant Allied concessions. Moreover, in the summer of 1945 intercepted military dispatches revealed that the Japanese had built up a huge force in southern Japan, the site of the prospective invasion, and the conduct of Japanese troops throughout the war had repeatedly demonstrated the national determination to fight to the death rather than to surrender.

Indeed, history has shown that Japanese militarists were urging a mass immolation of the populace, in an effort to impose the ancient samurai code of honor developed for warriors on civilian men and women. The god-emperor Hirohito took no decisive action until after the dropping of the atomic bombs.

Japanese expert Joseph Grew, U.S. acting secretary of state, raised the possibility of assuring the Japanese that if they surrendered their emperor would be allowed to remain. Only the emperor, said Grew, could make his armed forces accept surrender. Yet anything that modified the demand for unconditional surrender would raise difficulties among the Allies, for Hirohito symbolized the evil system in Japan in the same way that Hitler symbolized it in Germany.

The planned American invasion, “Operation Downfall,” had two parts. In the first, about November 1, 1945, 767,000 marines and soldiers would begin landing, backed by an invasion fleet larger than that of the landings in Normandy in June 1944. If the Japanese still held out after the occupation of the southern half of the island of Kyushu, the second part of the operation, about March 1, 1946, would send twice as many men as the first onto the main island, Honshu. Some experts estimated that the war so conducted would not cease until the end of 1946. Adm.William Leahy told the president that the United States would have to expect the same 35 percent casualties suffered on Okinawa.

Believing that an invasion could cost a quarter of a million or even a million American casualties, Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb. He wrote in his diary, “I have told the Sec. of War, Mr. Stimson to use it so that military objectives and soldiers and sailors are the target and not women and children. Even if the Japs are savages, ruthless, merciless and fanatic, we as the leader of the world for the common welfare cannot drop that terrible bomb on the old capital or the new. He and I are in accord. The target will be a purely military one and we will issue a warning statement asking the Japs to surrender and save lives. I’m sure they will not do that, but we will have given them the chance. It is certainly a good thing for the world that Hitler’s crowd or Stalin’s did not discover this atomic bomb. It seems to be the most terrible thing ever discovered, but it can be made the most useful.” In a letter to Professor James Cate on January 12, 1953,Truman wrote, “I asked Secretary [of War] Stimson which sites in Japan were devoted to war production. He promptly named Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among others.”

On August 6, 1945, Col. Paul W. Tibbetts piloted the Enola Gay to the city of Hiroshima, carrying the “Little Boy” atomic bomb, fueled by uranium. When they dropped it, it destroyed the center of the city, killing some 66,000 Japanese instantly, and inflicting on some 69,000 others radiation that was to have devastating after effects. The Japanese still did not surrender, despite another warning from the White House that otherwise they might “expect a rain of ruin from the air,” and on August 9 the “Fat Man” bomb, fueled by plutonium, was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 39,000 and injuring and exposing to radiation 25,000 more. The same day the USSR, having finally declared war on Japan, invaded Manchuria, where fighting continued until August 20. Meanwhile, on August 14 the Japanese agreed to an unconditional surrender, and the next day Hirohito without ever mentioning surrender told his people that his government was negotiating with the enemy and called upon them to accept the coming of peace. Even then, die-hard militarists in Japan tried to destroy all the copies of Hirohito’s recorded announcement of war’s end to keep the news from the people, and they came near to bringing off a coup. On September 2 Japanese representatives signed the surrender document aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay—despite MacArthur’s fears that a kamikaze attack might interfere.

Since then, the morality of using atomic bombs has been widely debated. No such debate occurred on the ships headed for Japan carrying war-weary U.S. soldiers from Europe; they cheered as their ships turned around in mid-ocean when Japan sued for peace. No such debate occurred among the U.S. sailors and marines on the navy ships that had fought their way island by bloody island across the Pacific. No such debate occurred among the U.S. soldiers and nurses who had been prisoners of war of the Japanese ever since the occupation of the Philippines. No such debate occurred among American families awaiting the return of brothers and sisters, husbands and sons, some of whom had been overseas for three years or more. No such debate occurred among the Australian soldiers who had fought around the world, knowing that their homeland was threatened with Japanese occupation, nor among the Chinese and Filipinos and Koreans who had known the terrors and tortures of Japanese occupation. Thousands of veterans who had already been assigned to the invasion of Japan when the bombs were dropped still say at the beginning of the 21st century, with infantry sergeant Don Dencker,“God bless the atomic bomb. It probably saved my life.” In the final reckoning it must be remembered that, according to the best estimates available, more people died in the battle for Okinawa than were killed as a result of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined.

At the most basic level, Japanese and American cultures and values clashed, and neither country understood the other. Americans did not understand the concept of the god-emperor as the focal point of Japan’s political and social system. It was one thing for Germans to envision life without Hitler, who had seized power only in 1933. It was another for Japanese to imagine their nation without a hereditary ruler whose authority had descended to him over a span of 1,000 years. Equally, the Japanese, who had made themselves hated all over Asia in the countries they conquered, could not anticipate the way in which the United States would help its former enemies rebuild their countries— indeed, in 1945 Americans themselves did not know how they would behave in victory.
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Re: Ontwikkeling van de bom.[Wo2]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 01 dec 2011, 19:56

The Enola Gay Crew
Airplane Crew
Col. Paul W. Tibbets - 509th commander and pilot
Capt. Robert A. Lewis - co-pilot
Maj. Thomas W. Ferebee - bombardier
Capt. Theodore J. Van Kirk - navigator
SSgt. Wyatt E. Duzenbury - flight engineer
Sgt. Robert H. Shumard - assistant flight engineer
Pfc Richard H. Nelson - radio operator
SSgt George R. Caron - tail gunner
Sgt. Joseph S. Stiborik - radar operator
Navy Capt. William “Deak” Parsons - weaponeer & ordnance officer
Lt. Jacob Beser - radar countermeasures officer
Lt. Morris R. Jeppson - assistant weaponeer

Ground Crew
TSgt. Walter F. McCaleb
Sgt. Leonard W. Markley
Sgt. Leonard W. Markley
Sgt. Jean S. Cooper
Cpl. Frank D. Duffy
Cpl. John E. Jackson
Cpl. Harold R. Olson
Pfc. John J. Lesniewski
Lt. Col. John Porter
maintenance officer




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