Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) en Reichenberg.[Wo2-D.]

Moderators: Messalina, Tandorini

Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) en Reichenberg.[Wo2-D.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 07 jun 2008, 22:44

Vroege strategische Raket.
De eerste zelfgeleide raket uit de geschiedenis kreeg als bijnaam V-1 (Vergeltungswaffe-1,vergeldingswapen-1) hoewel zijn eigenlijke naam Fieseler Fi 103 was.Het wapen droeg ook de 'dekmantelnaam' FM 76 (luchtafweeoefendoel 76).
De ontwikkeling van deze kruisraket begon in 1942,ten Generalfeldmarschall Milch toestemming gaf voor de ontwikkeling van de Schmidt pulsejet,een nieuw soort straalmotor die een goedkoop geproduceerde 'Vliegende bom' kon voortstuwen.De eerste gemotoriseerde vlucht was op 24 dcember 1942 en na vele vertragingen startten op 13 juni 1943 de bombardementen op Londen.

Aanval op Londen.
De V-1 was uiterst inaccuraat maar Londen vormde een ideaal delwit.De bom werd door een chemisch aangedreven zuiger over een schuin oplopende ril gelanceerd.Honderden lanceerinrichtingen nabij het Kanaal weden vernietigd door Geallieerde toestellen.Gelukkig voor Groot-Brittannië werden de geplande 3000 lancerngen per dag nooit gehaald.(De piek lag op 316 lanceringen vanaf 38 lanceerinstellingen op 2 augustus 1944).Niemand die destijds in Zuid-oost Engeland was,is het geluid vergeten van de naderende bommen,de plotselinge stilte als de motor uitviel en de oorverdovende explosie die nkele tellen later klonk.

Luchtlanceringen.
Er werden meer dan 1200 V-1's vanuit He 111H-22 bommenwerpers gelanceerd en begin 1945 vielen zo'n 2450 exemplaren op Antwerpen en Brussel.Er waren verschillende varianten,zoals de lange-afstandstypes met een grotere spanwijdte en een houten omhulsel om de lading.In totaal werden meer dan 29.000 V-1's gebouwd,vrijwel allemaal door tewerkgestelde jongens en mannen in de Mittelwerke.De Reichenberg IV versie werd gevlogen maar niet operationeel ingezet

Specificatie.
Type:Kruisraket die vanaf vaste stellingen of vanuit de lucht gelanceerd werd.
Aandrijving:Een argus-Schmidt 109-014 pulsejet met een freqentie van ongeveer 47 hz voor een stuwkracht an 2,94 kN op zeeniveau.
Prestaties:Snelheid rond 600 km/u of (vanaf eind 1944) tot 800 km/u;Bereik 240 km.
Gewicht:Lanceergewicht 2180 kg.
Afmetingen:Spanwijdte 5,3m of 5,7m;Lengte 8,3m of 7,7m.
Wapenkop:850kg.
Geleiding:Een automatische piloot hield koers vanaf de lanceerbaan en een propellerlog met de afstand.Op het geschikte moment werd de brandstoftoevoer afgesloten en de duik ingezet.
Besturing:Alleen hoogteroeren en richtingsroer.

Afbeelding

Opengewerkte tekening V-1.

Afbeelding

Een Fi 103R Reichenberg.

Afbeelding

Afbeelding

Twee unieke foto's:
Bovenaan:Een Spitfire probeert met zijn vleugeltip een V-1 uit koers te brengen.
Onderaan:Een V-1 enkele seconden voordat hij dood en verderf zaait in Coventry.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


Avatar gebruiker
Tandorini
Generaal
Generaal
 
Berichten: 2759
Geregistreerd: 30 mei 2008, 23:18

Re: Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) en Reichenberg.[Wo2-D.]

Berichtdoor Ducky » 12 okt 2008, 08:14

V-1 Development

The Germans performed experiments with autopiloted aircraft in the 1930s, but proposals made to the German military in 1939 and 1941 to develop flying bombs were turned down. In June 1942, however, growing RAF bomb raids on German cities, and rising losses of Luftwaffe bombers over England in attempts to retaliate, persuaded the Luftwaffe to consider new options. Work on the V-2 long-range rocket was encountering difficulties, and the V-2 was an Army project in any case.

The Luftwaffe investigated and approved the development of a small, cheap flying bomb, with a range of about 250 kilometers (155 miles) and an 800 kilogram (1,760 pound) warhead, that could hit a city-sized area, evading interception by flying in at high speed and low altitude. The project was given the cover designation of "Flak Ziel Geraet (FZG)", or "anti-aircraft target apparatus".

Propulsion for the new flying bomb was provided by the "pulsejet", which had been invented by Paul Schmidt in the early 1930s, with development picked up by the Army Weapons Office in 1937. The pulsejet was little more than a "stovepipe", with its sole moving part consisting of a shutter assembly inside the air intake. The simplicity and low cost of this engine was a major factor in the Luftwaffe's decision to pursue flying bomb development.

Air entering into the pulsejet was mixed with fuel and the mixture ignited by spark plugs. The combustion of the mixture slammed the intake shutters closed, and produced a burst of thrust out the exhaust. The shutters then opened again in the airflow. The production engine would perform this cycle about 42 times a second. This pulsed operation caused the engine to emit a loud low throbbing sound that would presently become familiar over the English countryside.

Schmidt's pulsejet was a crude engine. Throttling it was difficult at best, it could only operate effectively at low altitudes, and the shutters tended to wear out quickly, but none of these issues were important in an expendable robot weapon, and it had major advantages. It was simple, cheap, and powerful, with a thrust of 270 kilograms (600 pounds). Furthermore, it could use low-grade gasoline as a fuel, rather than precious high-octane aviation fuel.

Three companies collaborated in building the flying bomb. Fiesler built the airframe; Argus, the employer of Paul Schmidt, built the pulsejet engine; and Askania built the guidance system. A glide test of the flying bomb was performed from a Focke-Wulf FW-200 Kondor in early December 1942, followed by a powered flight on Christmas Eve.

The first powered flight only went a kilometer, and the early prototypes showed a distressing tendency to crash. To resolve these problems, a piloted flying bomb was developed, with the warhead replaced by a cockpit in which a test pilot could fly the machine while lying prone. Test flights were performed with the tiny and daring female test pilot Hanna Reitsch at the controls, and helped resolve the problems.

On 26 May 1943, top Nazi officials visited the test facility at Peenemunde, on the Baltic, to evaluate progress on the flying bomb. They concluded that the weapon should be put into full-scale production, and work was accelerated on completing development; establishing an operational unit to fire the weapons; and constructing launch sites. A hundred launch sites were to be built in the Pas de Calais area in northwest France, capable of launching a thousand flying bombs a day. London was only about 200 kilometers (120 miles) from the launch sites.

The flying bomb was refined into a production prototype version, codenamed "Kirshkern (Cherrystone)", that was much superior to the initial prototypes. In production, the weapon was officially designated the "Fiesler Fi-103" or "FZG-76", but was more informally referred to as the "V-1", for "Vergeltungswaffe Einz", or "Vengeance Weapon 1".

RAF photo-reconnaissance aircraft had been observing the strange goings-on at Peenemunde since the middle of May 1942, and though Allied intelligence wasn't sure about what was going on, it was clearly nothing good. The RAF launched OPERATION HYRDA, a major bomb raid on Peenemunde, in the late summer of 1943, though it did not greatly slow down German development efforts. Shortly thereafter, the USAAF bombed the launching sites in the Pas de Calais, destroying most of them.

On 28 November 1943, an RAF photo-reconnaissance aircraft took pictures of Peenemunde, and a sharp-eyed photographic analyst, Flight Officer Babington Smith, spotted a prototype flying bomb on a launch ramp at Peenemunde. British intelligence began to see what the Germans were up to, and estimated that the Germans would be able to start launching these new weapons against England in a matter of weeks.

Bombings of new launch sites under construction were stepped up. However, by this time the flying bomb was in production, and the new launch sites were more easily concealed. Several flying bombs were launched towards Sweden in last-minute tests to determine their range and other performance characteristics, and on 13 June 1944, the first V-1s were launched towards London.

Only about ten missiles were fired that day. The commandant in charge of the launch sites had been ordered to launch, but he was not quite ready to begin full scale launch operations at that time. He simply did as he was ordered, then returned to finishing his preparations.

The "Flying Bomb Blitz" began in earnest on 15 June 1944, with 244 fired at London and 50 fired at Southampton. 144 crossed the English coast; 73 managed to reach London; some were shot down; most of the rest landed south of the Thames; and a few hit Southampton. One went wildly astray and ended up in Norfolk.

V-1 Details

The V-1 was an odd and ingenious weapon, designed to be cheaply built in large numbers. Early production was largely made of metal, though wooden wings were quickly introduced. The V-1 was directed to its target by a simple guidance system, which incorporated a set of gyroscopes driven by compressed air to keep the missile stable; a magnetic compass to control bearing; and barometric altimeter to control altitude.

wingspan - 5.4 meters
length - 8.3 meters
total weight - 2,160 kilograms
warhead weight - 850 kilograms
speed - 645 KPH
range - 260 kilometers

The flying bomb was typically set to fly at an altitude of about 600 meters (2,000 feet) under the control of the barometric altimeter. A spinner on the nose armed the warhead after about 100 kilometers (60 miles) of flight, and determined when the weapon would fall to earth. Some sources claim that this function was performed by a simple clock, not a nose spinner. Illustrations are ambiguous on this issue, and it is possible that different production runs used different systems.

The little aircraft's wings had no control surfaces. The V-1 was directed by the rudder and elevators on its horizontal tailplane. As there was no way the flying bomb could maneuver anyway, such a crude approach was both adequate and cheap.

When the guidance system determined that the missile was over its target, it locked the control surfaces, and popped out spoilers under the horizontal tailplane to put the bomb into a steep dive. Usually, though not always, this stalled the engine. The abrupt cutoff of the loud buzz inspired terror, since it meant there would be a terrific explosion a few seconds later.

The V-1's warhead included a electrical fuze; a backup mechanical fuze; and a time-delay fuze, to ensure that the weapon destroyed itself if the other fuzes failed to work. The fuzing system was very reliable, and very few V-1s were duds.

Early V-1 production had a fuel capacity of 640 liters (169 US gallons). Flight time from launch to impact was usually about 22 minutes. Accuracy was very poor, with impacts scattered all over southeastern England.

The V-1 was prepared for launch by filling up its fuel tank, installing a battery, and charging up the compressed air tanks for the gyroscopes. It was then trollied to a demagnetized area to check the missile's magnetic compass and set up the guidance system in accordance with the planned target coordinates.

As the Argus pulsejet engine couldn't produce effective thrust until the flying bomb was up to flight speed, the V-1 was launched off a 48 meter (157 foot) long ramp using a steam catapult system, designed by the Walter company. The ramp contained a slot fitted with a dumbbell-shaped piston, and the flying bomb sat on a simple trolley that was linked to the piston. The piston was held in place with a shear pin.

A cart containing a reaction chamber and tanks of with hydrogen peroxide (HO) and granules of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) catalyst was connected to a chamber at the base of the ramp whose other end was plugged by the piston. When the hydrogen peroxide was pumped over the potassium permanganate, it was converted into large quantities of hot steam that built up pressure against the piston. When the pressure built up to a certain level, it broke the piston's shear pin and the trolley rapidly moved up the ramp.

The V-1 left the ramp at a speed of about 400 KPH (250 MPH), while the piston shot out into the surrounding terrain and the trolley fell off the weapon. After a firing, the launch ramp had to be swept off by personnel clad in protective clothing, as the fuel spatterings were corrosive.

The V-1 could be fitted with a poison gas warhead, which would have made it a truly fearsome weapon, considering the highly lethal nerve gases that the Germans possessed. However, fear of retribution in kind kept Hitler from performing poison gas attacks, as German gas warfare experts wrongly believed that the Allies had nerve gases as well.

Some of the V-1s were fitted with a radio transmitter and a trailing antenna wire so that their flight could be monitored. In some cases, the bombs were "shadowed" by fast aircraft like the Messerschmitt 410 to observe their flight. A few were also fitted with a cage to accommodate 23 one-kilogram incendiary bombs, or a paper carton full of propaganda leaflets, with the contents scattered by the force of the blast.

The V-1 was manufactured at various sites in the Reich, but the main production facility was the notorious underground SS slave-labor complex known as "Mittelwerk" at Nordhausen in the Harz Mountains. An estimated total of 24,000 V-1s were built in 1944, with as many as 10,000 built in 1945, though quantities tend to vary from source to source.

The Flying bomb Blitz

The Allies landed on the Normandy beaches on 6 June, a week before the first launch of the V-1, but even as the fighting raged around the beachhead, the flying bomb attacks continued at a brisk pace from the launch sites in the Pas de Calais.

Although the Allies had been expecting the flying bomb, which they codenamed "Diver", the attacks still came as something of a shock. The initial response to the missiles was clumsy and inept. At first, anti-aircraft guns sometimes shot them down over London, causing them to fall into the city even though they might have passed and dropped into an unpopulated area if left alone. The British public reacted to the attacks with a combination of curiosity and fear as the little missiles buzzed overhead, sounding a little like "a Model-T Ford going up a hill" or "like a motor-bike with a two-stroke engine."

The V-1s were originally referred to in the press as "pilotless bombs" or "robot bombers", but Prime Minister Winston Churchill discouraged such language, as they made the weapons sound unstoppable. Eventually, the V-1s became known as "buzz bombs" from the engine sound, or particularly "doodlebugs", a name invented by New Zealander airmen who thought they sounded like a loud buzzing bug of their homeland.

Although the flying bombs were inaccurate, the Germans were launching enough of them to cause severe damage, and the random nature of the attacks was unnerving. Sometimes a flying bomb acted capriciously, shutting off its engine and then restarting it again, or even turning around and flying back the way it came. In fact, one made a U-turn shortly after launching and landed with a tremendous explosion near a command post that Hitler was scheduled to visit.

Sometimes they seemed deadly accurate, leading some to believe they had a precision guidance system. One hit the headquarters of General Dwight Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander. The worst incident occurred on 20 June 1944, when one hit the Guard's Chapel attached to Wellington Barracks, not far from Buckingham Palace, killing 119 and wounding 141. Even when they caused no great loss of life, the flying bombs destroyed historic landmarks, as well as many homes.

Churchill was enraged at the attacks, and urged that poison gases be dropped on German cities in retaliation. The RAF responded that such a measure would likely be less effective than the air attacks with high explosive and incendiary bombs already in progress. Churchill was forced to reluctantly abandon his suggestion, which was just as well because the Germans were in a position to more than retaliate in kind. While the Germans thought the Allies had nerve gases and were keeping them a secret, the Allies had no idea such things existed.

German propaganda trumpeted that British citizens were streaming out of London at a rapid rate. In fact, youngsters were being evacuated to the countryside where they were generally out of harm's way, but at the same time workers were coming into the city to help repair the damage, and despite the terror of flying bombs falling out of the sky, the city's inhabitants generally went about their business.

Lookouts were posted on top of factories watch for flying bombs headed their way, and to sound an alarm when necessary so the workers could seek shelter. A popular department store announced that their basement was fitted as an air-raid shelter with a capacity of 1,500 people, and the establishment was equipped to give shoppers warning and all-clear signals.

Fighting the Flying bomb

The initial British defense against the flying bomb attacks was uncoordinated and ineffective. Fighter patrols attempting to intercept the missiles were poorly organized. The flying bombs were small and came in fast, at an altitude where a pilot could have trouble picking them out of the ground clutter. The altitude was also too high for light antiaircraft guns, but still low enough to evade long-range radar detection.

The first useful measure was to assign interception of the flying bombs to aircraft that had the speed to catch them, such as late-mark Supermarine Spitfires, Hawker Tempests, or Merlin-powered North American P-51s. When the new Gloster Meteor jet fighters reached operational units, they were also assigned to intercept flying bombs, though their flight endurance was less than a hour and long standing patrols were not possible. The number of flying bombs shot down by the Meteor was small, but these "kills" were played up as a propaganda measure.

While Spitfires and Tempests fought the flying bombs by day, night fighters like the De Havilland Mosquito and the new American Northrop P-61 Black Widow fought them at night. Day fighters flying at night were also able to shoot down some of the flying bombs at night, since the pulsejet engines spewed out a bright burning exhaust.

The Royal Observer Corps (ROC), the British ground-spotter network, was ordered to fire marker rockets in the direction of a flying bomb to alert air patrols. This was the first step in redirecting the network of ROC posts, radar stations, and RAF fighter control centers, or "filter rooms" as they were called, to meet the new threat.

At first, fighter pilots were careful to not approach too closely when firing on the flying bombs, since they feared that the big warhead would detonate and blast them out of the sky, but this didn't prove to be a major problem. Some learned to dive past the nose of the bomb to throw it off course, and then pilots became skilled at "tipping" a V-1 into a crash by slipping their wing underneath one of the bomb's and then rolling over. This was a tricky technique, since making physical contact could damage the fighter. The pilot had to instead generate air pressure to disrupt the V-1's flight.

The fighter patrols proved effective in destroying flying bombs. One fighter pilot, 24-year-old Squadron Leader Joseph Berry, destroyed a total of 60 by the end of the attacks. However, ground-based anti-aircraft defenses proved even more effective.

At the beginning of the flying bomb attacks, London was protected to the southeast by a barrier of 2,000 barrage balloons, captive balloons that trailed cables to present a hazard to low-flying aircraft, and a network of anti-aircraft guns.

Initially, neither defensive barrier made many kills. The barrage balloons did bring down a few flying bombs, though some of the V-1s were fitted with cable cutters. The anti-aircraft guns were constrained by rules of engagement designed to protect fighter patrols from "friendly fire".

In mid-July, a decision was made to move the anti-aircraft guns from the vicinity of London to the coast. This would give the guns a free field of fire, as well as hopefully let them destroy the flying bombs over water where they could not cause damage when they fell.

The relocation was no trivial matter, since the system included not only guns but also ammunition stores, communications centers and lines, control centers, and all the other elements of an air defense network. To compound matters, the anti-aircraft gun network had just completed one reorganization, which involved replacement of older manually-aimed weapons with new power-assisted guns.

The move was performed with impressive efficiency. The plan was submitted on 13 July 1944; the first heavy anti-aircraft guns were in operation in their new sites on 17 July; and the light guns were all in place by 19 July.

American anti-aircraft gun batteries soon joined in the defensive belt. Even more significantly, the Americans introduced two new wonders of technology to the battle that proved to be particularly effective. The first was was the "SCR-548" gun-laying radar, which was used in conjunction with an analog computer to automatically track and fire on aerial intruders.

The second was the radio proximity fuze, which allowed a shell to explode when it came to within a certain radius of a target, rather than being detonated by a time fuze set before firing. The V-1's straight and level path made it a relatively easy target for the new automated anti-aircraft gun system, and as gun crews became more experience with their new tools, the number of kills rose dramatically.

All these defensive measures had been implemented in haste, and it wasn't until late August that attempts were made to improve the coordination of the fighter patrols and the gun belt. By this time, however, the Allies were overrunning V-1 launch sites in the Pas de Calais and the number of flying bomb attacks dropped dramatically.

A total of about 10,000 flying bombs had been launched against London to that time. The Germans had been setting up launch sites near Cherbourg to launch flying bombs against Plymouth and Bristol, but these sites were captured before they became operational.

Last gasp of the Flying bomb

Even though the launch sites were overrun, flying bombs continued to hit England, if in reduced numbers.

Back in early July, a small number of flying bombs attacks were performed on Manchester and Gloucester. Allied leadership was baffled as to where these attacks were coming from, since the range of the V-1 was roughly known, and there was no place near enough for the Germans to set up launch sites that could reach these targets.

In fact, the Germans were launching the flying bombs from specially modified Heinkel He-111 bombers, operating from airfields in the Netherlands. Work on this scheme predated the beginning of the flying bomb blitz, and involved removing the He-111's bomb racks and a fuel tank, and installing launching gear and provisions for carrying a V-1 nestled under the left wing. The modified bombers were given the designation "He-111H-22".

This proved to be a risky business, since the flying bomb was very heavy and could be lethally tricky to launch. 1,200 V-1s were launched in this fashion, with the loss of 77 bombers. Twelve bombers were lost on two missions alone simply due to the premature detonation of the V-1's warhead after the He-111 left the runway.

Air launch was abandoned in mid-January 1945, due to the high attrition and the advance of Allied forces. However, the Germans were not quite done with this game, having developed a new version of the V-1 with a range of 400 kilometers (250 miles) by reducing the size of the warhead and increasing the size of the fuel tank.

They launched about 275 of these long-range flying bombs against Britain from the Netherlands in March 1945. British defenses were able to adjust to these last-gasp attacks, and the looming defeat of the Reich ended the campaign for good at the end of March. V-2 rocket attacks against England, which had begun the previous September, also slowly fizzled out.

During this last phase of the flying-bomb battle, the German Wehrmacht also launched as many as 9,000 V-1s against continental European targets, particularly the Belgian port city of Antwerp and the neighboring city of Liege, in hopes of interrupting the flow of Allied supplies to their advancing armies. These attacks faded out in March as well.

The Germans also considered launching V-1s from the back of the Arado Ar-234 jet bomber, using an odd rack that swiveled the missile up away from the aircraft at launch. This project does not seem to have gone past the paper stage.

One of the unusual side stories of the flying-bomb campaign was development of a piloted "suicide" V-1. The details of this weapon are obscure and the documentation contradictory.

In late 1943, the Germans had experimented with "manned missiles", in which pilots would point their aircraft at a ground target and bail out. Experiments along this line were performed with Focke-Wulf FW-190 and pulsejet-powered Messerschmitt Me-328 fighters, but proved unsuccessful.

In May 1944, SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Otto Skorzeny, German's brilliant and ruthless commando leader, proposed using the V-1 for this job. Within two weeks, prototypes of variants of the manned weapon, known as "Reichenberg", were built, with designations "R-I" through "R-IV".

The R-I and R-II were glider trainers and lacked engines. The R-I was a single-seat trainer, while the R-II was a two-seat trainer with dual cockpits. The R-III was a two-seat powered trainer, while the R-IV was the operational weapon. About 175 R-IVs were built, and a group of volunteers was organized to fly them. The piloted flying bombs were to be launched by bombers of "KG-200", the Luftwaffe special operations unit.

In principle, the pilot was to aim the Reichenberg at a target and then bail out. In practice, the weapon lacked an ejection seat, and though provisions were made for escape, getting out of such an aircraft safely as it dived at high speed towards a target was problematic. The volunteer pilots who were to fly the bombs were known as "Selbstopfermaenner", or "Suicide Men".

Unsurprisingly, many German officers did not like the scheme. In October 1944, a new commander named Werner Baumbach was appointed to KG-200, and he preferred Mistel to Reichenberg. The Germans had little enthusiasm for kamikaze missions. In fact, some sources say that the piloted V-1s were originally designed strictly as flight test machines, but it is difficult to fit that into the other parts of the story as they are recorded.

Along with the Reichenberg, another interesting dead-end adaptation of the V-1 was its use as an external fuel tank that could be towed behind an aircraft by a long pipe, with the pipe acting as both tow bar and fuel connection. The scheme was evaluated with an Ar-234 jet bomber, but never got beyond preliminary tests.

The effectiveness of the V-1 is debatable. Detractors point out that the V-1 was far too inaccurate to be considered a militarily effective weapon. It was a weapon of mass terror that struck almost at random.

It did prove undeniably destructive, inflicting almost 46,000 casualties, with over 5,000 people killed outright, destroying 130,000 homes, and damaging 750,000 more. However, it had no real effect on the outcome of the war, and absorbed resources that might have been better used in the defense of the Reich.

Others point out that the weapon was cheap to build and tied up a disproportionate amount of Allied resources. Though this was true, the Allies had the resources, and it is questionable that the V-1 prolonged the war by any significant length of time.

USAAF JB-2 / JB-1

Despite the V-1's limitations, the US military was very interested in it. In contrast to the bumbling American efforts in radio-controlled flying bombs such as the BQ weapons, the German V-1 looked pretty good, and in July 1944 captured V-1 components were shipped to Wright-Patterson Field in Ohio for evaluation. Within three weeks, the USAAF and American industry had built their own V-1, which was designated the "Jet Bomb 2 (JB-2)".

In August, the USAAF placed an order for 1,000 JB-2s with improved guidance systems: Ford built the pulse-jet engine, designated "PJ-31"; Republic built the airframe; and other manufacturers built the control systems, launch rockets, launch frames, and remaining components.

The JB-2s were launched off a rail with a solid rocket booster, in contrast to the somewhat complicated steam catapult system used by the Germans. Two versions were built, one with a gyroscopic guidance system like that used with the V-1, and the other with a radio-radar guidance system.

The USAAF then experimented with air-launching the JB-2. Most of the launches were from a B-17 bomber, though some were performed from B-24s and B-29s. The Air Force was so enthusiastic with the results that they increased the order for JB-2s to 75,000 in January 1945. However, the end of the war in August dampened enthusiasm for the weapon, and the program was terminated in September of that year after 1,200 had been built.

The US Navy also experimented with their own V-1 variant, the "KUW-1" (later "LTV-N-2") "Loon". Two submarines, the USS CARBENERO and the USS CUSK, and a surface vessel, the USS NORTON SOUND, were modified to launch the flying bombs. In February 1947, the CUSK successfully launched a Loon. The flying bomb was stored in a watertight hanger on the deck of the submarine, and assembled and launched by solid rocket boosters while the submarine was on the surface.

The Soviets are also believed to have built copies of the V-1, and the French operated a target drone based on the V-1 and designated the "Arsenal 5.501" well into the 1950s, though it differed from the original design in having twin tailfins and radio control.

Avatar gebruiker
Ducky
 
Berichten: 3
Geregistreerd: 23 sep 2008, 20:31

Re: Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) en Reichenberg.[Wo2-D.]

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 03 mei 2009, 17:02

Afbeelding
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


Avatar gebruiker
Tandorini
Generaal
Generaal
 
Berichten: 2759
Geregistreerd: 30 mei 2008, 23:18


Keer terug naar Strategische wapens

Wie is er online

Gebruikers op dit forum: Geen geregistreerde gebruikers. en 1 gast

cron