Oorlogvoerende landen tijdens WOI

Alles over Wereldoorlog 1.

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Oorlogvoerende landen tijdens WOI

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 02 jan 2009, 14:25

The First World War was a truly global conflict which, at its peak, involved twenty seven Allied nations and four Central Powers.

CENTRAL POWERS

AUSTRIA - HUNGARY

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Entered War:28 July 1914 (declared war on Serbia).

Political system:Dual monarchy and empire. The kingdoms of Austria and Hungary were united in 1867.

Leader:Franz Josef I: emperor, 1848-1916
Karl I: emperor, 1916-18

Population:51 million (1910).

Army:325,000 men in the Imperial and Royal Army (drawn from all parts of the empire), 40,000 men in the Austrian territorial army and 30,000 in the Hungarian territorial army (1914). When the war started, Austria-Hungary mobilised 2.25 million men. A total of 7.8 million were mobilised for army service during the war.

Navy:15 battleships, 7 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 5 submarines, 90 torpedo boats (1914).

Air Force:250 aircraft (1916)

Recent Diplomacy:With Germany and Italy, Austria-Hungary was a member of the Triple Alliance , formed in 1882, which was meant to protect its member countries against attack by Russia or France. It was renewed every five years.

There was, however, underlying tension with Italy - a number of ethnic Italians lived within the empire.

Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia in 1908 drew it into conflict with Serbia. The Serbs wished to see Austria-Hungary expelled from the Balkans.

Additional information:Austria-Hungary was a multi-national, multi-lingual and multi-ethnic empire. The Austrians and the Hungarians constituted the largest groups, but it also included Poles, Croats, Bosnians, Serbs, Italians, Czechs and numerous others. This ethnic and linguistic diversity weakened the power of the Austro-Hungarian military - 80% of all officers spoke German, but only 30% of other ranks.

Casualties by 1918:925,000 dead, 3.6 million wounded; 1.2 million were taken prisoner.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Oorlogvoerende landen tijdens WOI

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 02 jan 2009, 14:32

GERMANY

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Entered War:1 August 1914 (declared war on Russia).
3 August 1914 (declared war on France).

Political system:Federal empire in which Prussia's monarch was also Kaiser (emperor) of Germany. Although elected on the basis of universal male suffrage, Germany's parliament (Reichstag) was primarily a deliberative chamber. The Kaiser controlled foreign policy, the armed forces and all ministerial appointments.

Leader:Wilhelm II: emperor, 1888-1918
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg: chancellor, 1909-17
Bethmann-Hollweg was succeeded by a number of puppet chancellors until the German (Weimar) republic was declared on 9 November 1918.

Population:65 million (1914)

Army:700,000 men (summer 1914). Within a week of war being declared, the German army had expanded to 3.8 million men, and by August 1916, 4.5 million German soldiers were fighting on the Western and Eastern Fronts.

Navy:17 dreadnoughts, 20 pre-dreadnought battleships, 5 battle-cruisers, 25 other cruisers (various classes), 28 submarines and a further 17 under construction (1914). Germany's navy was the second largest in the world.

Air Force:260 aircraft, 11 airships (1914)

Recent Diplomacy:Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were all members of the Triple Alliance (1882), a diplomatic arrangement that was designed to protect its members from attack by Russia or France.

Additional information:Germany emerged as a major industrial, military and political power in the late 19th century and began to acquire imperial possessions in Africa, the Pacific and the Far East. The older imperial powers regarded this as a threat to their own status.

Casualties by 1918:1.7 million dead, 4.1 million wounded.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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Re: Oorlogvoerende landen tijdens WOI

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 02 jan 2009, 15:49

TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE)

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Entered War:29 October 1914 (attacked Russia's ports in the Black Sea)

Political system:Empire

Leader:Mehmed V was sultan between 1909 and 1918, but real power lay with the 'Young Turks', a secular, modernising group that had seized power in 1909 and installed Mehmed as sultan. The leading 'Young Turks' were Enver Pasha, Talaat Pasha and Cemal Pasha

Population:25 million (1914). 14 million were Turks and the rest consisted of Greeks, Arabs, Armenians, Kurds and other nationalities.

Army:36 divisions (1914). Total fighting strength rose to approximately 1.25 million men by 1916.

Navy:2 pre-dreadnought battleships, 4 destroyers (1910). More ships were ordered after 1910 but not all were delivered by the start of hostilities. Germany gave Turkey two cruisers (Goeben and Breslau) at the start of the war.

Air Force:20 aircraft (1914)

Recent Diplomacy:By the early 20th century, Turkey had been largely expelled from its European territories, and a number of 'successor states' (Bulgaria, Rumania, Serbia and Greece) had arisen to replace it. Turkey was regarded as the 'sick man of Europe' and desperately sought an alliance with a major European power to improve its political position. However, because of its declining status and its ambiguous position (a predominantly Islamic state straddling both east and west), most European powers were reluctant to form an alliance with Turkey until Germany befriended it.

At the outbreak of World War I, Turkey had already been humiliated in the First Balkan War (1912-13) and had lost territory.

Casualties by 1918:300,000 dead, 400,000 wounded.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

Avatar:De Siciliaanse vlag,oorspronkelijk uit 1282,de triskelion (trinacria) in het midden,is van oorsprong een oud Keltisch zonnesymbool.


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