Het hedendaagse Italiaanse leger.

Alles over het Italiaanse leger van vroeger en nu.

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Het hedendaagse Italiaanse leger.

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 31 okt 2010, 21:43

Met dank aan Tenente Roberto Mariani.


The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic . It has recently become a professional all-volunteer force of 112,000 active duty personnel. The headquarters of the Army General Staff is in Rome, opposite the Presidential Palace.

Command Structure
The Italian Military is under the command of the Italian Supreme Defense Council, presided over by the President of the Italian Republic. The Italian Army is commanded by the SME or “Stato Maggiore dell’Esercito” (Chief of the Army General Staff) in Rome. The Chief of staff has direct control of all support and logistics operations in Italy (i.e. military clinics, repair facilities, acquisitions,…), but no direct control of the operational forces, which are all assigned to and commanded by COMFOTER: “Comando delle Forze Operative Terrestri” (Command of Operational Terrestrial Forces).

Operational Forces
COMFOTER has direct command on a NATO rapid reaction Corps Command (NRDC-IT), of four support brigades (Artillery, Air Defense, Logistics, Engineering), as well as command of the Army Aviation, the Army Communication and Transmission command and of three commands called COMFOD 1, COMFOD 2 and COMALP, which between them command the actual 11 Italian combat Brigades. The attached units are in detail:


NRDC is located in Solbiate Olona (Lombardy) and has only one regiment at its dependency:
1° Signal Regiment in Milan (Lombardy)


“Comando Truppe Alpini” or COMALP has command over the light Mountain Troops - called Alpini- of the Italian Army. It is located in Bolzano and consist of the following units:
Alpini Training Center in Aosta
6° Alpini Regiment (high altitude training areas) in San Candido (South Tyrol) with 21 Bv206
4° Alpini Paracadutisti (Parachutist) Regiment “Monte Cervino” in Bolzano with 21 Bv206 and 33 Puma 4x4 (Forces for Special Operations)
“Tridentina” Division Command (without fixed units) in Brixen-Bressanone (South Tyrol)
“Taurinense” Alpini Brigade in Turin (Piedmont)
2° Alpini Regiment in Cuneo (Piedmont) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
3° Alpini Regiment in Pinerolo (Piedmont) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
9° Alpini Regiment in l'Aquila (Abruzzi) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
1 °Cavalry Regiment “Nizza Cavalleria” in Pinerolo (Piedmont) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
1° Mountain Artillery Regiment in Fossano (Piedmont) with 24 FH-70
32° Alpini Engineer Regiment in Turin (Piedmont)
“Julia” Alpini Brigade in Udine (Friuli)
5° Alpini Regiment in Sterzing-Vipiteno (South Tyrol) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
7° Alpini Regiment in Belluno (Veneto) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
8° Alpini Regiment in Cividale e Venzone (Friuli) with 21 Bv206 and Puma 6x6
3° Mountain Artillery Regiment in Tolmezzo (Friuli) with 24 FH-70
2° Alpini Engineer Regiment in Trento (Trentino)
1° Hungarian Mechanized Battalion (for out of area NATO peacekeeping deployment)
182. Slovenian Infantry Battalion (for out of area NATO peacekeeping deployment)


“Comando Forze di Difesa 1” or COMFOD 1 resides in the north-eastern city of Vittorio Veneto (Veneto) and commands the most specialized brigades of the Italian Army:
“Mantova” Infantry Division Command (without fixed units)
“Folgore” Parachutist Brigade in Livorno (Tuscany)
Parachutist Training Center in Pisa (Tuscany)
9° Parachutist Assault Regiment “Col Moschin” in Livorno (Tuscany) (Special forces)
183° Parachutist Regiment “Nembo” in Pistoia (Tuscany) with Puma 6x6
186° Parachutist Regiment “Folgore” in Siena (Tuscany) with Puma 6x6
187° Parachutist Regiment “Folgore” in Livorno (Tuscany) with Puma 6x6
185° Parachutist Reconnaissance Regiment “Folgore” in Livorno (Tuscany) (Forces for Special Operations)
8° Parachutist Engineer Regiment in Legnago (Veneto)
“Friuli” Air Assault Brigade in Bologna (Emilia)
3 °Cavalry Regiment “Savoia Cavalleria” in Grosseto (Tuscany) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
66° Air Assault Infantry Regiment “Trieste” in Forlì (Romagna) with 33 Puma 6x6
5° Army Aviation Regiment “Rigel” in Casarsa (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with
36 A129 "Mangusta" Attack Helicopters
12 AB 109EOA "Hirundo" Observation helicopters
24 AB 206C/1 Battlefield Surveillance helicopter
7° Army Aviation Regiment “Vega” in Rimini (Romagna) with
24 A129 "Mangusta" Attack Helicopters
12 AB 109EOA "Hirundo" Observation helicopters
24 AB 412 Support helicopters
“Pozzuolo del Friuli” Cavalry Brigade in Gorizia (Friuli-Venezia Giulia)
2 °Cavalry Regiment “Piemonte Cavalleria” in Trieste (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
4 °Cavalry Regiment “Genova Cavalleria” in Palmanova (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
5 °Cavalry Regiment “Lancieri di Novara” in Codroipo (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
Lagunari (Marine Infantry) Regiment “Serenissima ” in Venice (Veneto) with 25 AAV7-A1 and Puma 6x6
Artillery Regiment “a cavallo” in Milan (Lombardy) with 24 FH-70
3° Engineer Regiment in Udine (Friuli-Venezia Giulia)
“Ariete” Armored Brigade in Pordenone (Friuli-Venezia Giulia)
4° Tank Regiment in Bellinzago Novarese (Piedmont) with 54 Ariete
32° Tank Regiment in Tauriano (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 54 Ariete
132° Tank Regiment in Cordenons (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 54 Ariete
3° Bersaglieri mechanized Infantry Regiment in Milan (Lombardy) with 50 VCC (M113 improved)
11° Bersaglieri mechanized Infantry Regiment in Orcenigo Superiore (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 50 Dardo
132° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Ariete” in Maniago (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) with 32 M109/L
10° Engineer Regiment in Cremona (Lombardy)


“Comando Forze di Difesa 2” or COMFOD 2 resides in S. Giorgio a Cremano near Naples and commands 5 brigades. Three of those, the brigades “Aosta”, “Pinerolo” and “Granatieri di Sardegna” are made up of one year volunteers and therefore are supposed to be used only on Italian soil. COMFOD 2 commands:
“Acqui” Division Command (without fixed units)
91° Training Battalion “Lucania”
“Sassari” Mechanized Brigade in Sassari (Sardinia)
151° Infantry Regiment “Sassari” in Cagliari (Sardinia) with VCC (M113 improved)
152° Infantry Regiment “Sassari” in Sassari (Sardinia) with VCC (M113 improved)
5° Engineer Regiment in Macomer (Sardinia)
“Garibaldi” Bersaglieri Mechanized Brigade in Caserta (Campania)
131° Tank Regiment in Persano (Campania) with 54 Leopard 1
19 °Cavalry Regiment “Cavalleggeri Guide” in Salerno (Campania) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
1° Bersaglieri Regiment in Cosenza (Calabria) with 50 Dardo
8° Bersaglieri Regiment in Caserta (Campania) with 50 Dardo
8° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Pasubio” in Persano (Campania) with 32 M109/L
21° Engineer Regiment in Caserta (Campania)
“Pinerolo” Mechanized Brigade in Bari (Apulia)
31° Tank Regiment in Altamura (Apulia) with 54 Leopard 1
7° Bersaglieri Regiment in Bari (Apulia) with VCC (M113 improved)
9° Infantry Regiment “Bari” in Trani (Apulia) with VCC (M113 improved)
82° Infantry Regiment “Torino” in Barletta (Apulia) with VCC (M113 improved)
21° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Trieste” in Foggia (Apulia) with 32 M109/L
11° Engineer Regiment in Foggia (Apulia)
“Aosta” Mechanized Brigade Messina (Sicily)
6 °Cavalry Regiment “Lancieri d’Aosta” in Palermo (Sicily) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
6° Bersaglieri Regiment in Trapani (Sicily) with VCC (M113 improved)
5° Infantry Regiment “Aosta” in Messina (Sicily) with VCC (M113 improved)
62° Infantry Regiment “Sicilia” in Catania (Sicily) with VCC (M113 improved)
24° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Peloritani” in Messina (Sicily) with 32 M109/L
4° Engineer Regiment in Palermo (Sicily)
“Granatieri di Sardegna” Mechanized Brigade in Rome (Lazio)
1° “Granatieri di Sardegna” Mechanized Infantry Regiment in Rome (Lazio) with VCC (M113 improved)
2° “Granatieri di Sardegna” Mechanized Infantry Regiment in Spoleto (Umbria) with VCC (M113 improved)
8 °Cavalry Regiment “Lancieri di Montebello” in Rome (Lazio) with 50 Centauro and 33 Puma 4x4
33° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Acqui” in l'Aquila (Abruzzi) with 32 M109/L


“Comando Trasmissioni e ed Informazioni dell’Esercito” or CoTIE is the Italian Army’s Signal and Information Command, it resides in Anzio (Lazio) and consists of the following units:
Signal Brigade for Maneuver Support
2° Alpini Signal Regiment in Bolzano with the Battalions "Gardena" and "Pordoi".
7° Signal Regiment in Sacile with the Battalions "Rolle" and "Predil".
11° Signal Regiment in Civitavecchia (Lazio) with the Battalions "Leonessa" and "Tonale".
232° Signal Regiment in Avellino (Campania) with the Battalion "Fadalto".
Signal Brigade for National Support
3° Signal Regiment in Rome (Lazio) with the Battalions "Lanciano", "Abetone" and "Gennargentu".
32° Signal Regiment in Padova (Veneto) with the Battalions "Valles" and "Frejus".
46° Signal Regiment in Palermo (Sicily) with the Battalions "Mongibello" and "Vulture".
RISTA EW Brigade
33° IEW Regiment “Falzarego” in Treviso (Veneto)
41° Regiment “Cordenons” in Casarsa (Friuli)
13° Battalion “Aquileia” in Anzio (Lazio)

Army Aviation Command

The Army Aviation Command resides in Viterbo and includes the non combat flying formations of the Army (i.e. Transport Planes, support helicopters,…)
Army Aviation Instruction Center in Viterbo
1° Squadron “Auriga” in Viterbo
2° Squadron “Sestante”
21° Squadron “Orsa Maggiore” in Elmas (Cagliari) with 12 AB 205A
Army Aviation Brigade
1° Army Aviation Regiment “Antares” in Viterbo (Lazio) with 36 CH-47C "Chinook" and 24 AB 205A
2° Army Aviation Regiment “Sirio” in Lamezia Terme (Calabria) with 24 AB 206C/1
4° AVES Regiment “Altair” in Venaria (Piedmont) and Bolzano with 24 AB 205A and 24 AB 206C/1
28° Army Aviation Squadron “Tucano” in Viterbo (Lazio) with 3 Dornier DO-228 and 3 Piaggio P-180
ITALAIR Squadron in Naqoura (Lebanon) with 4 AB 205
Air Defense Brigade
4° Air Defense Regiment “Peschiera” in Mantova with 30 Hawk surface-to-air missile systems
5° Air Defense Regiment “Pescara” in Rovigo with 30 Hawk surface-to-air missile systems
17° Air Defense Regiment “Sforzesca” in Sabaudia with 16 Skyguard "Aspide", 104 SIDAM and 56 Stinger
121° Air Defense Regiment “Ravenna” in Bologna 16 Skyguard "Aspide", 104 SIDAM 25 and 56 Stinger
Field Artillery Brigade
2° Mountain Artillery Regiment “Vicenza” in Trento (Trentino) with 24 FH-70
5° Rocket Artillery Regiment “Superga” in Portogruaro (Veneto) with 22 MLRS
7° NBC Defense Regiment “Cremona” in Civitavecchia (Lazio) with VAB in the NBC configuration
28° Psychological Warfare Regiment “Pavia” in Pesaro (Marche)
52° Self propelled Artillery Regiment “Torino” in Vercelli (Piedmont) with 32 M109/L
Engineering Brigade
2° Bridge Engineers Regiment in Piacenza
6° Pioneer Engineers Regiment in Rome
Railway Engineers Regiment in Castel Maggiore (near Bologna)
Logistics Brigade
1° Maneuver Logistics Regiment in Rivoli
6° Maneuver Logistics Regiment in Pisa (Tuscany)
10° Maneuver Logistics Regiment in Persano (Campania)
24° Maneuver Logistics Regiment “Dolomiti” in Merano (South Tyrol)
1° Transport Regiment
6° Transport Regiment in Budrio
8° Transport Regiment in Orzano
10° Transport Regiment in Bari (Apulia)

Support units

The following support units are not under the command of COMFOTER and their role is exclusively the support of units on Italian soil. They are commanded by various sub staffs of the SME- Army General Staff in Rome.
Training Brigade in Capua
17° Infantry Regiment “Acqui” in Capua
47° Infantry Regiment “Ferrara” in Capua
80° Infantry Regiment “Roma” in Cassino
85° Infantry Regiment “Verona” in Montorio Veronese
235° Infantry Regiment “Piceno” in Ascoli Piceno
other Training units:
1° Tank Regiment in Capo Teulada (Sardinia)
1° Infantry Regiment “San Giusto” in Trieste
78° Infantry Regiment “Lupi di Toscana” in Florence
123° Infantry Regiment “Chieti” in Chieti
157° Infantry Regiment “Liguria” in Albenga
Technical Support and Logistics units:
Military Region North
184° Signal Support Regiment in Treviso
2° Army Aviation Support Regiment “Orione” in Bologna
3° Army Aviation Support Regiment “Aquila” in Orio al Serio
Military Region South
44° Signal Support Regiment in Rome
1° Army Aviation Support Regiment “Idra” in Bracciano
4° Army Aviation Support Regiment “Scorpione” in Viterbo
8° Transport Regiment “Casilina”
11° Transport Battalion “Flaminia”
57° Infantry Battalion “Abruzzi” in Rome

Effective Operational Capability
All the brigades - with the exception of the home service Brigades “Aosta”, “Pinerolo” and “Granatieri di Sardegna” may be deployed outside Italy and are often involved in either war-fighting or peace-keeping operations on foreign soil. The three home service brigades have a role of 'presence and surveillance' of key Italian institutions, i.e. the “Granatieri di Sardegna” Brigade guards the capital city Rome and the Presidential Palace. They are not destined for extra-territorial missions and members expect to remain in Italy throughout their service years. The remaining eight brigades are combat brigades, numbering between 3-7,000 troops each. These units are the pride of the Italian Army and are a front-line well-equipped force capable of dealing with most emergency situations. They are characterised by quality, efficiency, motivation and mobility. In total numbers the Italian Army can field about 85,000 ground troops out of a total Army strength of 112,000 men and women. But although most units are designated as regiments they consist of one expanded Logistics, Support and Command company and a combat battalion, which- in the case of the infantry (Alpini, Bersaglieri, Granatieri, Lagunari, Fanti) units- consists of:
3 Infantry Companies
1 Mortar Company
1 Antitank Company

The naming has historical reasons. Most regiments are deployed singularly, especially the support brigades' regiments as adjuncts to combat units, formed for the task ahead.

Beretta AR70/90 - 5.56 mm assault rifle
Minimi - 5.56 mm light machine gun
MG3 - 7.62 mm machine gun
Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3—Rocket propelled grenade

Combat vehicles
Ariete - Main Battle Tanks ( 200 )
Leopard 1 - Main Battle Tanks ( 108 )
Centauro - Amour fire Support Vehicle(AFSV) ( 400 )
Dardo - Infantry fighting vehicle ( 200 )
VBC - Infantry fighting vehicle
VCC - Armoured personnel carrier (Highly modified M113) (1638)
M113 (882)

M109L self-propelled howitzer ( 192 )
FH-70 towed howitzer ( 70 )
PzH 2000 self-propelled howitzer ( 70 )
Brandt 120 mm mortar

Agusta A129 Mangusta - attack ( 60 )
AB 212 - tactical transport ( 14 )
AB 412 - tactical transport ( 20 )
NH-90 - tactical transport (60)

A post-World War II peace treaty signed by Italy prevented the country from deploying military forces in overseas operations as well as possessing fixed-wing vessel-based aircraft for twenty-five years following the end of the war.

This treaty expired in 1970, but it would not be until 1982 that Italy first deployed troops on foreign soil, with a peacekeeping contingent being dispatched to Beirut following a United Nations request for troops. Since the 1980s, Italian troops have participated with other Western countries in peacekeeping operations across the world, especially in Africa, Balkan Peninsula and the Middle East.

As of yet, the Italian Army has not engaged in major combat operations since World War II; though Italian Special Forces have taken part in anti-Taliban operations in Afghanistan as part of Task Force 'Nibbio'. Italy was not yet a member of the United Nations in 1950, when that organization went to war with North Korea.

Italy did take part in the 1990-91 Gulf War but solely through the deployment of eight Italian Air Force Panavia Tornado IDS bomber jets to Saudi Arabia; Italian Army troops were subsequently deployed to assist Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq following the conflict.

As part of Operation Enduring Freedom in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, Italy contributed to the international operation in Afghanistan. Italian forces have contributed to ISAF, the NATO force in Afghanistan, and a Provincial reconstruction team and 5 Italian soldiers have died under ISAF. Italy has sent 411 troops, based on one infantry company from the 2nd Alpine Regiment tasked to protect the ISAF HQ, one engineer company, one NBC platoon, one logistic unit, as well as liaison and staff elements integrated into the operation chain of command. Italian forces also command a multinational engineer task force and have deployed a platoon of Italian military police. Three AB 212 helicopters also are deployed to Kabul.

The Italian Army did not take part in combat operations of the 2003 Second Gulf War, despatching troops only after May 1, 2003 - when major combat operations were declared over by the U.S. President George W. Bush. Subsequently Italian troops arrived in the late summer of 2003, and began patrolling Nasiriyah and the surrounding area. On 26 May, 2006, Italian foreign minister Massimo D'Alema announced that the Italian forces would be reduced to 1,600 by June. As of June 2006 32 Italian troops have been killed in Iraq - with the greatest single loss of life coming on November 12, 2004 - a suicide car bombing of the Italian Carabinieri Corps HQ left a dozen Carabinieri, five Army soldiers, two Italian civilians, and eight Iraqi civilians dead.

A recent law promotes membership of the Italian Army guaranteeing volunteers post-Army careers in the Carabinieri, Italian State Police, Italian Finance Guard and Italian State Forestry Corps, amongst other state bodies.
NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

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Re: Het hedendaagse Italiaanse leger.

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 01 nov 2010, 08:02


Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. It was born in 1946, as the Navy of the Italian Republic, from the ashes of the Regia Marina. Marina Militare celebrates on 10 June, on the anniversary (1918) of the sinking of the Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István.

Marina Militare is divided into five corps:

* Armi Navale (naval ordnance corps);
* Genio Navale (naval combat engineering)
* Commissariato Militare Marittimo (commissariat)
* Corpo Sanitario (sanitary service)
* Capitanerie di Porto (coast guard).

The ensign of the Marina Militare is the Italian tricolour with Marina Militare emblem on the white third. The emblem is composed by a shield, whose four parts are reference to Medieval Italian Thalassocracies (Italian: Repubbliche Marinare):

* 1st quarter: on red, a golden winged lion wielding a sword (Republic of Venice);
* 2nd quarter: on white field, red cross (Republic of Genoa);
* 3rd quarter: on blue field, white cross (Republic of Amalfi);
* 4th quarter: on red field, white cross (Republic of Pisa).

The shield has a golden crown, that distinguish military vessels from merchant: the crown, "Corona rostrata", was proposed in 1939 by Admiral Cavagnari to the Government, as an acknowledge of the Italian Navy's origin since the Roman times. In the proposal, Adm. Cavagnari wrote that "in order to recall the common origin [of the Navy] from the Roman sailorship, the Insignia will be surmounted by the towered Crown with rostrums, the emblem of honour and valour the Roman Senate awarded to the leaders of naval victories, conquerors of lands and cities across the seas". Another difference with the merchant vessels flag is that the lion symbolizing the Republic of Venice has the book in its paw closed (the Mark's Gospel, that on the Republic Insignia is open on the words "Pax tibi Marce, evangelista meus", Peace to you Mark, my Evangelist) and it is wielding a sword.

The Marina Militare Italiana was born as Regia Marina on 17 March 1861, after the proclamation of the Italian Kingdom.

After World War II

At the end of World War II, Italy was as a devastated nation after five years of war. After the end of hostilities the Regia Marina, which at the beginning of the war was the fourth largest navy in the world with a mix of modernised and new battleships, started a long and complex rebuilding process. The important combat contributions of the Italian naval forces after the signing of the armistice with the Allies on 8 September 1943 and the subsequent cooperation agreement on 23 September 1943 left the Regia Marina in a poor condition, with much of its infrastructures and installations unusable and its ports mined and blocked by sunken ships. However a large number of its naval units had survived the war, albeit in a low efficiency state, which was due to the conflict and the old age of many vessels. They vessels that remained were:

* 2 Aircraft carries
* 5 Battleships
* 9 Cruisers
* 11 Destroyers
* 22 Frigates
* 19 Corvettes
* 44 Fast Coastal Patrol units
* 50 Minesweepers
* 16 Amphibious operations vessels
* 2 School ships, one of these was the sailing ship Amerigo Vespucci
* 1 support ship and plane transport
* various Submarine units

The peace Treaty

The peace Treaty signed on 10 February 1947 in Paris was onerous for the Marina. Apart from territorial and material losses, also the following restrictions were imposed:

* A ban to own, to build or to experiment with atomic weapons, self-propulsion projectiles or relative launchers, etc…
* A ban to own Battleships, Aircraft carriers, Submarines and Amphibious Assault units.
* A ban to operate military installations on the islands of Pantelleria, Pianosa and on the archipelago of Pelagie Islands.

The treaty also ordered Italy to put the following ships at the disposals of the victorious nations United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, Greece and Jugoslavia and Albania as war compensation:

* 3 Battleships: Giulio Cesare, Italia, Vittorio Veneto;
* 5 Cruisers: Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta, Attilio Regolo, Scipione Africano, Eugenio di Savoia and Eritrea;
* 7 Destroyers, 5 of the "Soldati" class and Augusto Riboty and Alfredo Oriani;
* 6 Minesweepers: like Aliseo and Fortunale;
* 8 Submarines: 3 of the "Acciaio" class;
* 1 Sailing School ship: Cristoforo Colombo.

The total displacement, battleships excluded, of the future navy was not allowed to be greater than 67,500 tons, while the staff was capped at 25.000 men.

The adhesion to the NATO

The great changes in the international political situation convinced Great Britain and the United States to cease the process of handing in of the navy's large ships, which had been dismantled in La Spezia between 1948 and 1955, including the flagship aircraft carrier "Aquila". The Soviet Union, instead, claimed the handing in of the warship "Giulio Cesare" and much of units to her attributed. The cruisers "Attilio Regolo" and "Scipione Africano" became the French "Chateaurenault" and "Guichen", while the "Eugenio di Savoia" became the Greek "Helli". So only a small part of the fleet, that which was not transferred or demolished, could be reinserted in the Marina.

As US attention turned to the Soviets and the Mediterranean Sea it transformed Italian seas in one of the main places of confrontation between the two superpowers, contributing to the re-emergence of Italy’s importance and of its ports thanks to her strategic geographical position.

With the new elections in 1948, the Kingdom of Italy became the Italian Republic, and the Regia Marina (‘’”Royal Navy”’’) took on the name of Marina Militare Italiana. In full Marshall Plan and in a context where Europe was going to be divided in two set against blocks, Italy began to entertain talks with the United States aimed to obtain adequate safety guarantee. The government in Washington, greatly interested to keep its own installations on the peninsula, loosened peace Treaty bonds by inserting the Italian nation into the Mutual Defense Assistance Programme (MDAP).

On 4 April 1949, Italy joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), corroborating her impossibility to contributing actively in the organization: that lead to the definitive repeal of the peace Treaty bonds by the end of 1951, with the consent of all of Western nations.

The Development of the fleet

Within NATO, the Marina Militare was assigned the control of the Adriatic Sea and Strait of Otranto, as well sa the defence of the naval routes through the Tyrrhenian Sea. To ensure these tasks was carried out a "Studio sul potenziamento della Marina italiana in relazione al Patto Atlantico" (Study about the Development of the Italian navy with reference to the Atlantic Pact) was undertaken, which researched the structures and the methods for the development of the Marina Militare.

This solution required a great economic effort aimed at the rebuilding and transformation of the fleet; it also required aid from the United States to reach the necessary standard. However the program carried on slowly both due to the economic pressures on Italy due to the post-war period rebuilding process and by the obstacles placed by some of European governments who were concerned at seeing an Italian Navy capable of rivalling the Western naval forces.

Present Day Marina Militare

Today's Marina Militare is a modern navy with ships of every type, such as aircraft carriers, destroyers, modern frigates, submarines, amphibious ships and plenty of other smaller ships, including oceanographic research ships. The fleet is in continuous evolution; the Marina Militare is now equipping herself with a bigger aircraft carrier (the Cavour), new destroyers, submarines and multipurpose frigates.In modern times, the Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The "Marina Militare" is considered the sixth strongest navy of the world.

Currently Active
Aircraft carriers (CVS-ASW)

* Giuseppe Garibaldi (C 551)
* Cavour (C 550).

De la Penne class

* Luigi Durand De la Penne (D 560) (formerly Animoso)
* Francesco Mimbelli (D 561) (formerly Ardimentoso)

Orizzonte class AA destroyer

* Andrea Doria (D553)
* Caio Duilio (D554)

Amphibious transport dock ships
San Giorgio class

* San Giorgio (L 9892)
* San Marco (L 9893)
* San Giusto (L 9894)

Maestrale class

* Maestrale (F 570)
* Grecale (F 571)
* Libeccio (F 572)
* Scirocco (F 573)
* Aliseo (F 574)
* Euro (F 575)
* Espero (F 576)
* Zeffiro (F 577)

Soldati class

* Artigliere (F 582)
* Aviere (F 583)
* Bersagliere (F 584)
* Granatiere (F 585)

Corvettes - Patrol Ships
Minerva class - 1st series

* Minerva (F 551)
* Danaide (F 553)
* Urania (F 552)
* Sfinge (F 554)

Minerva class - 2nd series

* Driade (F 555)
* Chimera (F 556)
* Fenice (F 557)
* Sibilla (F 558)

Cassiopea class

* Cassiopea (P 401)
* Libra (P 402)
* Spica (P 403)
* Vega (P 404)

Comandanti class (NUMC)

* Comandante Cigala Fulgosi (P 490)
* Comandante Borsini (P 491)
* Comandante Bettica (P 492)
* Comandante Foscari (P 493)

Cassiopea 2 class (NUPA)

* Sirio (P 409)
* Orione (P 410)

Esploratore class

* Esploratore (P 405)
* Sentinella (P 406)
* Vedetta (P 407)
* Staffetta (P 408)

Mine Warfare Vessels
Lerici class - 1st series

* Lerici (M 5550)
* Sapri (M 5551)
* Milazzo (M 5552)
* Vieste (M 5553)

Lerici class – 2nd series

* Gaeta (M 5554)
* Termoli (M 5555)
* Alghero (M 5556)
* Numana (M 5557)
* Crotone (M 5558)
* Viareggio (M 5559)
* Chioggia (M 5560)
* Rimini (M 5561)

Ponza class

* Ponza (A 5364)
* Levanzo (A 5366)
* Tavolata (A 5367)
* Palmaria (A 5368)
* Procida (A 5383)

U212A class

* C.te Salvatore Todaro (S 526)
* Sciré (S 527)

Sauro IV class

* Primo Longobardo (S 524)
* Gianfranco Gazzana Priaroggia (S 525)

Sauro III class

* Salvatore Pelosi (S 522)
* Patricio (Pato) Prini (S 523)

Sauro class

* Leonardo da Vinci (S 520)

Squadron Replenishment Ships

* Etna (A 5326)
* Stromboli (A 5327)
* Vesuvio (A 5329)

Gasoline Tankers

* Panarea (A 5370)
* Linosa (A 5371)
* Favignana (A 5372)
* Salina (A 5373)

Water Transports

* Ticino (A 5376)
* Tirso (A 5377)

Vehicle Transport Ships

* Gorgona (A 5347)
* Tremiti (A 5348)
* Caprera (A 5349)
* Pantelleria (A 5351)
* Lipari (A 5352)
* Capri (A 5353)

Weapons Test Ships

* Carabiniere ( F 581) (Frigate size)
* Raffaele Rossetti (A 5315)
* Vincenzo Martellotta (A 5320)


* Anteo (A 5309): Submarine Rescue and Salvage Ship
* Elettra (A 5340): Electronic Warfare Ship

Training ships

* Palinuro (A 5311)
* Amerigo Vespucci (A 5312)

Corsaro class

* Stella Polare (A 5313)
* Corsaro II (A 5316)

Decommissioned Ships
Submarine Evangelista Torricelli (S-512), former USS Lizardfish (SS-373).

* Andrea Doria class cruisers (1964 - 1991): 2 vessels
* Vittorio Veneto class cruisers (1969 - 2003): 1 vessel
* Audace class destroyers: 2 vessels
* Lupo class frigates: 4 vessels
* Submarines: Alfredo Cappellini (S-507) Evangelista Torricelli (S-512), Livio Piomarta (S-515).
* Sauro class submarines: Sauro (S518), Di Cossato (S519), Da Vinci (S520), Marconi (S521)
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Re: Het hedendaagse Italiaanse leger.

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 01 nov 2010, 08:30


The Aeronautica Militare Italiana is the Italian air force. It was founded as an independent service arm on the March 28, 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica (which equates to "Royal Air Force"). After World War II, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the Regia Aeronautica was given its current name. Its Aerobatic precision team is the Frecce Tricolori.

Italy is one of the nations that can boast some of the oldest traditions in the field of aviation. As far back as 1884, in fact, the Regio Esèrcito was authorised to equip itself with its own air component, the Servizio Aeronautico, based in Rome. In 1911, during the Italo-Turkish war, Italy employed aircraft, for the first time ever in the world, for reconnaissance and bombing missions. As a result of Benito Mussolini, who wanted Italy to become a world power, the Regia Aeronautica was born on 23 March 1923. During the thirties the Regia Aeronautica was involved in its first military operations, initially in Ethiopia in 1935, and later in Spain between 1936 and 1939. After a period of neutrality, Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940 alongside Germany, in which the Regia Aeronautica could deploy more than 3.000 aircraft, of which less than 60% were serviceable. The Regia Aeronautica fought from the icy steppes of Russia to the sand of the North African desert losing men and machines. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, Italy divided itself into two, and the same fate befell the Regia Aeronautica. The end of the hostilities, on 8 May 1945, opened the gates to the rebirth of military aviation in Italy.
A referendum resulted in the proclamation of Italy as a Republic on 18 June 1946, and in parallel the Regia Aeronautica was transformed into the Aeronautica Militare Italiana - the title that it holds today. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 placed severe restrictions on the Italian armed forces, but membership of NATO in 1949 opened the way for modernisation of the AMI. The American military aid through the Mutual Defence Assistance Programme saw the arrival of P-51 Mustang and P-47 Thunderbolt piston-engined fighters. Later in 1952 the best aircraft of the period, F-84G, F-86E(M) and F-84F fighters and C-119 transports came to Italy. Not content to see foreign-designed aircraft serving the AMI, the reborn Italian aviation industry began the develop and produce aircraft of its own like the Fiat G91, Aermacchi MB326, Piaggio Aero P166 and the line of Agusta-Bell helicopters. The sound-barrier by the AMI was broken with the introduction of the Lockheed F-104G Starfighter, constructed under licence by Fiat. The decade of the Seventies witnessed the acquisition of the Aeritalia G222 and Lockheed C-130, which renewed the transport fleet, and the Lockheed-Aeritalia F-104S, a fighter-variant of the Starfighter developed specifically to meet the requirements of the Italian defence system.

The drive to improve and expand the aircraft industry led Italy in the programme of the Panavia Tornado and the development and introduction of the AMX, this later with Embraer of Brazil. In 1990, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Italy joined the coalition forces and for the first time in 45 years Italian pilots and aircraft were tasked with military wartime operations.

Further crises were going to require the intervention of the Italian forces in Somalia, Mozambique, and in the Balkans. The conflict in the former Yugoslavia, only a few minutes flying time from the Italian borders, saw a need to improve the future air defence. As a stopgap and as replacement for leased Tornado ADV interceptors, the AMI has leased 30 F-16A Block 15 ADF and four F-16B Block 10 Fighting Falcons, with an option to some more. The coming years also will see the introduction of 121 EF2000 Typhoons, replacing the leased F-16 Fighting Falcons. Furthermore updates are foreseen on the Tornado IDS/IDT and the AMX-fleet. The transport capacity will be improved with the delivery of eighteen C-130Js (for 2°Gr) and an upgrade program for the C-130Hs. Also a complete new developed G222, called C-27J Spartan, will enter service replacing the G222's.

Aermacchi MB-339A (106) - Trainer, Light Attack
Aermacchi MB-339PAN (15) - Acrobatic, Trainer - Former A version with Smoke
Aermacchi MB-339CD-1 (15) - Trainer, Light Attack - New variant with hud glass cockpit and more fighter capability
Aermacchi MB-339CD-2 (15) - Trainer, Light Attack - Advanced version of the CD-1
Aermacchi SF-260EM (30) - Trainer - Special version with only 2 seats
Siai Marchetti S.208M (45) - Transport
General Dynamics F-16AM Block 15 (30) - Fighter - In leasing from USAF
General Dynamics F-16BM Block 10 (4) - Trainer, Fighter - In leasing from USAF
Eurofighter Typhoon F2 (100) - Fighter
Eurofighter Typhoon T1 (21) - Fighter, Trainer - Two seats trainer version of the Typhoon with the same operative possibilities
AMX International AMX (110) - Light bomber
AMX International AMX-T (26) - Light bomber, Trainer - Two seats trainer version of the AMX with the same operative possibilities
Panavia Tornado IDS (100) - Bomber
Panavia Tornado IT-ECR (15) - Bomber - Modefied IDS version for antiradar missions
Alenia C27J Spartan (12) - Transport
Lockheed Martin C-130J (12) - transport
Lockheed Martin C-130J30 (10) - Transport - Longer version of the Super Hercules
Boeing KC-767A (4) - Transport, Tanker
General Atomics RQ-1A Predator (5) - Survelliance - Joint use with NAVY
Sikorsky HH-3F (35) - SAR, Combat SAR
Sikorsky SH-3D/TS (2) - VIP Transport
Piaggio Aero P180 Avanti (18) - VIP Transport, Trainer
Piaggio Aero P-166 DL3 (6) - Transport
Breguet Br.1150 Atlantique (18) - Anti Submarine - Joint use with NAVY
Dassault Falcon 50 (4) - VIP Transport
Dassault Falcon 900EX (5) - VIP Transport
Airbus A.319 CJ (3) - VIP Transport
Agusta Bell AB212AM (35) - SAR, Combat SAR
Hughes NH500E (50) - Trainer, SAR

Future aircraft
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II

Dismissed aircraft
* Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
* Tornado ADV (24 leased from RAF)
* Aeritalia G.222
* Lockheed C-130H
* Boeing 707 T/T

Aeronautica Militare Italiana organization and units
Stato Maggiore - Headquarters Air Force

Prima Regione Aerea - First Air Region (North Italy)

1ª Brigata Aerea - 1st Air Brigade (after Vezio Mezzetti) - Padova

16° Stormo - 16th Wing
17° Stormo - 17th Wing - Padova

57° Gruppo Intercettori - 57th Interceptor Group
72° Gruppo Intercettori - 72th Interceptor Group
80° Gruppo Intercettori - 80th Interceptor Group

2° Reparto Manutenzione Missili - 2nd Missile Maintenance Unit
401° Reparto STO (Supporti Tecnici Operativi) - 401th TOS Unit (Technical Operative Support)
501° Reparto SLO (Servizi Logistici Operativi) - 501th LOS Unit (Logistic Operative Services)
601ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 601st Joint Squadron
Scuola Missili Nike - Nike Missile School

2° Stormo - 2nd Wing (after Mario D'Agostini)

313° Gruppo Addestramento Acrobatico (Pattuglia Acrobatica Nazionale) - 313rd Group - Flight Demonstration Group - Frecce Tricolori
402° Gruppo STO - 402nd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
502° Gruppo SLO - 502nd LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
602ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 602nd Joint Squadron

3° Stormo - 3rd Wing (after Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia)

28° Gruppo - 28th Group
132° Gruppo - 132th Group
403° Gruppo STO - 403rd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
503° Gruppo SLO - 503rd LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
603ª Squadriglia Collegamenti e Soccorso - 603rd Joint and Rescue Squadron

5° Stormo - 5th Wing (after Giuseppe Cenni)

23° Gruppo Caccia - 23th Fighter Group
405° Gruppo STO - 405th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
505° Gruppo SLO - 505th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
605ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 605th Joint Squadron

6° Stormo - 6th Wing (after Alfredo Fusco)

102° Gruppo - 102th Group
154° Gruppo - 154th Group
406° Gruppo STO - 406th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
506° Gruppo SLO - 506th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
606ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 606th Joint Squadron

Dismissed - 8° Stormo - 8th Wing (after Gino Prido)

101° Gruppo - 101th Group
408° Gruppo STO - 408th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
508° Gruppo SLO - 508th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
608ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 608th Joint Squadron

50° Stormo - 50th Wing (after Giorgio Graffer)

155° Gruppo - 155th Group
450° Gruppo STO - 450th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
550° Gruppo SLO - 550th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
650ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 650th Joint Squadron

51° Stormo - 51th Wing (after Ferruccio Serafini)

22° Gruppo - 22th Group
103° Gruppo - 103th Group
451° Gruppo STO - 451st TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
551° Gruppo SLO - 551st LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
651ª Squadriglia Collegamenti e Soccorso - 651st Joint and Rescue Squadron

53° Stormo - 53th Wing (after Guglielmo Chiarini)

21° Gruppo - 21th Group
453° Gruppo STO - 453rd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
553° Gruppo SLO - 553rd LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
653ª Squadriglia Collegamenti e Soccorso - 653rd Joint and Rescue Squadron
1° Reparto Manutenzione Velivoli - 1st Aircraft Maintenance Unit

Seconda Regione Aerea - Second Air Region (Center Italy)

4° Stormo - 41st Wing (after Amedeo D'Aosta)

9° Gruppo - 9th Group
20° Gruppo - 20th Group
404° Gruppo STO - 404th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
504° Gruppo SLO - 504th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
604ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 604th Joint Squadron

9° Stormo - 9th Wing (after Francesco Baracca)

10° Gruppo - 10th Group
409° Gruppo STO - 409th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
509° Gruppo SLO - 509th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
609ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 609th Joint Squadron

14° Stormo - 14th Wing (after Sergio Sartoff)

8° Gruppo - 8th Group
71° Gruppo - 71th Group
Centro Manutenzione Velivoli - Aircraft Maintenance Centre

15° Stormo - 15th Wing (after Stefano Cagna)

82° Centro SAR - 82nd Group (Search and Rescue)
83° Centro SAR - 83rd Group (Search and Rescue)
84° Centro SAR - 84th Group (Search and Rescue)
85° Gruppo SAR - 85th Group (Search and Rescue)
615ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 615th Joint Squadron

30° Stormo - 30th Wing (after Valerio Scarabellotto)

86° Gruppo - 86th Group
430° Gruppo STO - 430rd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
530° Gruppo SLO - 530th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)

31° Stormo - 31th Wing (after Carmelo Raiti)

93° Gruppo - 93th Group
306° Gruppo - 306 th Group
431° Gruppo STO - 431st TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
531° Gruppo SLO - 531st LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)

46ª Brigata Aerea - 46th Air Brigade (after Silvio Angelucci)

2° Gruppo - 2nd Group
50° Gruppo - 50th Group
98° Gruppo - 98th Group
446° Gruppo STO - 446th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
546° Gruppo SLO - 546th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)

70° Stormo - 70th Wing

207° Gruppo - 207th Group
50° Gruppo - 50th Group
98° Gruppo - 98th Group
470° Gruppo STO - 470th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
570° Gruppo SLO - 570th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
670ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 670th Joint Squadron

72° Stormo - 72nd Wing

208° Gruppo - 208th Group
472° Gruppo STO - 472nd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
572° Gruppo SLO - 572nd LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
672ª Squadriglia Collegamenti e Soccorso - 672th Joint Squadron

303° Gruppo Autonomo - 303th Independent Group

Centro di Volo a Vela - Glider Flight Centre

Reparto Sperimentale Tiro Aereo - Air Targeting Experimental Unit

Terza Regione Aerea - Third Air Region (South Italy)

32° Stormo - 32nd Wing (after Armando Boetto)

13° Gruppo - 13th Group
201° Gruppo - 201th Group
204° Gruppo - 204th Group
432° Gruppo STO - 432nd TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
532° Gruppo SLO - 532nd LOS Unit (Logistic Operative Services)
632ª Squadriglia Collegamenti e Soccorso - 632nd Joint and Rescue Squadron

36° Stormo - 36th Wing (after Riccardo Helmut Seidl)

12° Gruppo - 12th Group
156° Gruppo - 156th Group
204° Gruppo - 204th Group
436° Gruppo STO - 436th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
536° Gruppo SLO - 536th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
636ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 636th Joint Squadron

37° Stormo (Cesare Toschi)

18° Gruppo - 18th Group
437° Gruppo STO - 437th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
537° Gruppo SLO - 537th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
637ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 637th Joint Squadron

41° Stormo - 41st Wing (after Athos Ammannato)

88° Gruppo - 88th Group
441° Gruppo STO - 441th TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
541° Gruppo SLO - 541th LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
641ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 641st Joint Squadron
11° Reparto Manutenzione Velivoli - 11st Aircraft Maintenance Unit

Dismissed - File:60ªBrigata-Patch.png 60ª Brigata Aerea - 60th Air Brigade

61° Stormo - 61st Wing

212° Gruppo - 212nd Group
213° Gruppo - 213rd Group
Gruppo Allievi - Students Group
461° Gruppo STO - 461st TOS Group (Technical Operative Support)
561° Gruppo SLO - 561st LOS Group (Logistic Operative Services)
661ª Squadriglia Collegamenti - 661st Joint Squadron
10° Reparto Manutenzione Velivoli - 10th Aircraft Maintenance Unit

Comando Generale delle Scuole - School High Command

Scuola di Guerra Aerea - Firenze - Air Warfare School - Florence
Accademia Aeronautica - Pozzuoli - Air Academy - Pozzuoli
Scuola di Applicazione - Firenze - Application School - Florence
Scuola di Volo Basico Iniziale Aviogetti - Lecce-Galatina - Initial Basic Jet Flight School - Lecce-Galatina
Scuola Volo Basico Avanzato Aviogetti - Foggia-Amendola - Advanced Basic Jet Flight School - Foggia-Amendola
Scuola Volo Basico e Avanzato a Elica - Latina - Basic and Advanced Prop School - Latina
Scuola di Volo Elicotteri - Frosinone - Helicopter Flight School - Frosinone
Scuola Addestramento Reclute AM - Macerata - Recruit Training School - Macerata
Scuola Addesrtamento Reclute AM - Taranto - Recruit Training School - Taranto
Scuola Addestramento Reclute Vigilanza AM - Viterbo - Vigilance Recruit Training School - Viterbo
Scuola Centrale Istruttori di Volo - Grottaglie - Flight Instructor Central School - Grottaglie
Scuola Metodo Didattico - Guidonia - Didactic Method School - Guidonia
Scuola Sottufficiali - Caserta - Warrant Officers School - Caserta
Centro Tecnico Addestrativo Difesa Aerea - Borgo Piave - Training Air Defense Technical Centre - Borgo Piave
Centro Tecn. Addestr. TLC ed assistenza al volo - Pratica di Mare - Training TLC and Flight Assistance Technical Centre - Pratica di Mare
Scuola di Sanità AM - Roma - Medical School - Rome
Scuola Lingue Estere AM - Ciampino - Foreign Languages School - Ciampino

Ispettorato Logistico - Logistic Inspectorate

Ispettorato Telecomunicazioni ed Assistenza al Volo - TLC and Flight Assistance Inspectorate

Comando Scuola di Guerra Aerea - Air Warfare Command

Divisione Aerea Studi, Ricerche e Sperimentazioni - Study, Research and Experimentations Air Division

Reparto Sperimentale di Volo - Experimental Flight Unit

NEC JACTANTIA NEC METU ("zonder woorden, zonder vrees")

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Re: Het hedendaagse Italiaanse leger.

Berichtdoor Tandorini » 01 nov 2010, 08:37

Militaire politie.

The Carabinieri are the military police of Italy. Because they police both military and civilian populations, they are a gendarmerie force. Carabinieri is Italian for Carabiniers, but the Italian word is used as the common name for this force in English. The full official title of the force is Arma dei Carabinieri (Force of Carabinieri).

Historically, a Carabiniere was a cavalryman or soldier armed with a carbine. Their motto is Nei Secoli Fedele (Faithful throughout the Centuries). Their mission was to control crime and to serve the community through respect for the Law.

The corps was created by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy, with the aim of providing Piedmont with a police corps similar to the French Gendarmerie. Previously, police duties were managed by the Dragoni di Sardegna corps, created in 1726 and composed of volunteers.

After French soldiers had occupied Turin at the end of the 18th century and later abandoned it to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Savoy, the corps of Carabinieri Reali (Royal Carabinieri) was instituted under the Regie Patenti (Royal Patents) of July 13, 1814.

Both a military and a police corps, the Carabinieri have fought in every conflict in which Italy has been involved, suffering heavy losses and being awarded many decorations for gallantry.

The Carabinieri are particularly proud of the memory of Brigadier Salvo D'Acquisto, who was executed by the Nazis in Palidoro, near Rome, in World War II, having exchanged his life for the lives of innocent citizens due to be executed in retaliation for the murder of a German soldier. Brigadier D'Acquisto falsely claimed responsibility and was shot for the offence.

The history of the Carabinieri recounts many such actions and the corps is nicknamed La Benemerita (the Meritorious).

The Carabinieri is now an armed force (alongside the Army, Navy and Air Force), thus ending their long standing as the first corps (Arma) of the Army (Esercito). It is likely that Carabinieri will continue to be referred to as the Arma by antonomasia.

In recent years Carabinieri units have been dispatched on peacekeeping missions, including Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2003 twelve Carabinieri were killed in a suicide bomb attack on their base in Nasiriyah, near Basra, in southern Iraq, in the largest Italian military loss of life in a single action since the Second World War (see 2003 Nasiriyah bombing).

At the Sea Island Conference of the G8 in 2004, the Carabinieri was given the mandate to establish a Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU) to spearhead the development of training and doctrinal standards for civilian police units attached to international peacekeeping missions.

Chain of command

The corps is headed by the Comando, consisting of the Comandante Generale (a General), the Vice-Comandante Generale (a Lieutenant General) and the Headquarters Staff, all located in Rome.

Territorial organisation

The Carabinieri are organised on a territorial basis for law enforcement missions. There are five Zones (commanded by Lieutenant Generals), 20 Regions (commanded by a Major General or Brigadier Generals) and 104 Provinces (commanded by a Colonel or Lieutenant Colonels). At a local level, in medium-sized cities there are Companies, commanded by a Capitano (Captain), and in small towns there are Stations, commanded by a Maresciallo (which translates literally as "Marshal" but is equivalent in rank to a Warrant Officer).

Specialist Mobile Unit Command

Outside the territorial organisation, the Specialist Mobile Unit Command Palidoro based in Rome controls the Mobile Unit Division, Specialist Unit Division and the ROS.

The Mobile Unit Division

The Mobile Unit Division located in Rome has two brigades.

1st Mobile Brigade based in Rome consists of 11 battalion-sized regiments and the Carabinieri Mounted Regiment.
2nd Mobile Brigade situated in Livorno consists of the Tuscania Parachute Regiment located in Livorno, 7th Trentino Alto Adige Regiment and the 13th Friuli Venezia Giulia Regiment. The GIS (Gruppo di Intervento Speciale - Special Intervention Group) is also part of 2nd Brigade and is the Carabinieri's elite counter terrorism unit, similar to the British Special Air Service and the German GSG 9, and is composed exclusively of former members of the elite forces. It has the same training as the NOCS of the Polizia di Stato but has wider duties as the Carabinieri are also responsible for military policing so only the GIS is involved when military installations are under threat. It may also be sent abroad on peacekeeping or enforcement duties.

Particularly significant is the role the MSU (Multinational Specialised Unit) carries out in the Balkans. It bridges the security gap between the military and civilian police forces, either UN or local, both of whom are often not trained in public order operations. As a result of the experience the MSU has gained, the European Union has approved the institution of an Integrated Police Unit, which can be immediately deployed, flexible and inter-operational with the military to be used for humanitarian aid, peacekeeping and in natural disasters.

Specialist Unit Division

The Specialist Unit Division located in Rome consists of highly qualified personnel working for ministries to scrutinize socially sensitive issues. Sanitary Enforcement Task Force investigates hygiene violations in the processing, sale and distribution of foods and drinks. Environmental Protection Command is involved in protecting land, water and air against pollution, monitoring hazardous materials and protecting endangered plants and wildlife.

The Tutela Patrimonio Culturale or TCP protects Italy's cultural heritage and the Nucleo Tutela Patrimonio Artistico specialises in the protection of artwork and in the recovery of stolen paintings.

Other special task forces enforce agriculture and employment legislation, and provide security for the Foreign Affairs Ministry plus Italian and overseas diplomats. Very high-risk personnel are protected by members of the Tuscania Parachute Regiment. Bank of Italy Command is responsible for the escort of money transports and security and surveillance in all branches of the bank. Currency Anti-Counterfeiting Command is integrated into the Bank of Italy to identify and investigate the circulation of forged banknotes. Scientific Investigation Department conducts forensic investigation and research and develops modern techniques for investigative purposes. Helicopter Group guarantees national coverage with light and multi-purpose choppers with a response time of 30 minutes.


The ROS (Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale) is an elite unit founded in 1990 to deal with organised crime (Mafia and others), subversive activities, terrorism and the more complex types of crime. An anti-crime section is found in every city district public prosecutor's office.

Special Tasks Departments

Special Tasks Departments are outside the ordinary organisational framework and are attached to various departments and entities for the execution of specific missions:
Corazzieri (Cuirassiers) are an elite corps and honour guard of the President of the Italian Republic located in the Quirinale palace. They are distinguished by their uniforms and height (the minimum height for admission is 190cm, or 6 feet 3 inches). They have almost no other everyday duties, although they may be seen patrolling occasionally.

Other departments are in service to Constitutional Bodies such as the Presidency of the Republic, the Senate, Parliament, the Judiciary, the Prime Minister and the National Council of Economy and Labour.

Carabinieri also perform Military police and security duties for the Ministry of Defence, military high commands, offices of the military judiciary and allied military organisations in Italy and abroad. They also have personnel attached to the Department of Public Security in various departments as well as anti-mafia and anti-drug investigation task forces. Furthermore, Carabinieri officers are in charge of surveillance and security at Italian Embassies and Consulates abroad, performing the same services entrusted to the United States Marine Corps in US Diplomatic and Consular offices.

There are Carabinieri groups around the world including Australia and Canada.

The Carabinieri in Italian culture
Carabinieri made an appearance in Carlo Collodi's 1882 Pinocchio, when two officers arrest Pinocchio for a crime he has not committed.

While the Carabinieri have been widely considered one of the most trusted and competent institutions by the Italian population, they are also the traditional butt of many jokes implying that they were stereotypically incompetent and unable to think beyond blind obedience [1].

Many films and tv series have featured the Carabinieri, including as protagonists. Racconti del Maresciallo, La Tenda Nera, Il Maresciallo Rocca and Carabinieri are some of the titles that have been produced, mainly by the RAI fiction division.

In January 2005, the private television network Canale 5 introduced a Carabinieri-related drama series called R.I.S. based on the Ra.C.I.S. (Raggruppamento Carabinieri Investigazioni Scientifiche; Carabinieri Scientific Investigation Group) and modelled on the American CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.

Although the Carabinieri have a very positive reputation among the Italian people, it is not to be neglected that in different hisorical periods they have been involved in atrocities, as part of the Italian African Police, in occupied Ethiopia in the late 1930s and early 1940s, during the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini the corps of Carabinieri cooperated with the regime because that was order of the king.

However, when King Victor Emmanuel III ordered the arrest of Mussolini on 25 July 1943, the Carabinieri were entrusted with this task. It is also noteworthy that, when Mussolini was freed by the Germans in September 1943 (following Italy's armistice with the Allies) and took the lead of the Repubblica Sociale Italiana in October 1943, he decided to disband the Carabinieri and establish in their place a new police force, the Republican National Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana – GNR). Although the GNR was largely constituted of former Carabinieri, this decision was probably due to the fact that the Carabinieri were traditionally considered as being closer to the constitutional monarchy than to the fascist regime, and therefore not fully reliable after the King had switched over to the Allies' side.

Some senior carabinieri were implicated in the controversies surrounding Operation Gladio, including the violent "strategy of tension" and an embryonic plan for a coup d'etat. These allegations remain unproven. The Carabinieri were criticised for their handling of the policing of the G8 Summit in Genoa in 2001, and the killing of a protestor Carlo Giuliani. Charges for the killing were later dropped.
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